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Professor
Educational Inquiry and Curriculum Studies
College of Education
Courses Taught 
ICSE 201: History and Culture of Ethnic Groups
ICSE 322: Independent Study
ICSE 329E: Oral Tradition
ICSE 329F: Youth Organizing Activism
ICSE 329H: Inner City Development
ICSE 329V: Elite Theory and American Democracy
Research Interests 
Interventions Aimed At Reducing High-Risk Health Behaviors in Inner City Communities; Qualitative Research Design and Methodology RESEARCH EXPERIENCE Principal Investigator (03/2006-Present) NEIU Grow Your Own Teachers Program The Grow Our Own Teacher Program (GYO) establishes an initiative to encourage and support paraprofessionals, parents, and other active community members in becoming certified as teachers. GYO seeks to stimulate the development of consortia made up of an institution that prepare teachers (NEIU), a targeted school district (CPS), and a community organization (ACORN Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now). Working together, these entities are to identify paraeducators and parents who have been leaders in schools with hard-to-staff positions and provide these individuals with the financial and other support they will need to complete teacher preparation programs. The new teachers are then to be placed in positions in the targeted schools. Principal Investigator (01/2007-08/2008) CeaseFire Evaluation Evaluated the effectiveness of the Chicago Project for Violence Prevention CeaseFire program, a State of Illinois funded violence reduction initiative. The purpose of the study was to find out what main "stakeholders" of this violence reduction program like individuals who reside in CeaseFire’s service areas, faith leaders, victims of violence, elected officials and the police had to say about the program. The evaluation used qualitative techniques, in particular, an ethnographic/focused interview process. Principal Investigator (04/2004) for a study with Whitney Young High School Social Work Department, Chicago, Illinois. I am conducting a focus group study that is examining adolescent males’ perceptions of manhood. The purpose of the study is to collect data that will be used to develop a rite of passage program for at-risk male students at Whitney Young. The study involved 8 focus groups that included over 50 freshmen through senior male students. I am currently analyzing the data. Research Associate (2000-present) Institute for Research on Race and Public Policy Research. University of Illinois-Chicago. I conducted my dissertation research, an ethnographic/focused interview study of a cultural intervention designed to reduce risky behaviors among inner-city African American youth at the Institute for Research on Race and Public Policy Research. Having completed the study, my goal now is to further the study by placing the findings in the context of education policy and health disparities among African American youth. Research Assistant (1996-1997) on the Aban Aya Youth Project at the University Illinois-Chicago, Prevention Research Center. Research Project: to develop and then evaluate a school-based program designed to promote abstinence from sex, teach students how to avoid drugs and alcohol, and to teach them how to resolve conflicts non-violently.
Education 

Ph.D. Public Health Sciences University of Illinois-Chicago, Chicago, IL. 2004
Dissertation Research: Cultural intervention and perceptions of violence-related behaviors: A Role Strain and Adaptation Study of Adolescents

M.A. Inner City Studies EducationNortheastern Illinois University, Chicago, IL. 1995.

B.A. Applied Behavioral ScienceNational-Louis University, Chicago, IL. 1994.

Selected Publications 

Williams, L. (2009). Culture & Perceptions of Violence-related Behaviors Among Adolescents: A Role Strain and Adaptation Model. Koln, Germany. Lambert Publishing.

Williams, L. & Moore, N. (In Publication). A Nation of Stones: Street Gangs, Black Power and Urban Terrorism. Chicago, Illinois. Lawrence Hills Books.

Williams, L. (In Print). Cultural interventions for reducing violence among young, African American males. In W. Johnson (Ed). Social Work with African-American Males. New York, New York: Oxford University Press.

Williams, L. (2009). Hip-hop as a site of public pedagogy. In B. Schultz, J. Sandlin and J. Burdick (Eds). In Handbook of Public Pedagogy: Education and Learning beyond Schooling. Routledge.

Williams, L. & Alexis-Bivens, S. (2008). The Father’s Toolkit: A Curriculum Guide for Reconnecting Incarcerated and Formerly Incarcerated Fathers With Their Children. Springfield, Illinois. Illinois Department of Human Services.

Williams, L. (under review). Evaluation of Chicago Violence Prevention Project CeaseFire.

Williams, Lance. (under review). Reducing Violence and Anti-Social Behavior of Young, Inner-City African American Males: A Rites of Passage Paradigm. International Journal of Africana Studies.

Williams, Lance. (under review). A Life-span perspective of antisocial behavior among young African American Males.

Background 

TEACHING EXPERIENCE

Northeastern Illinois University 1999-Present

Sociology Courses: Sociology of Health and Illness, Sociology of Violence, Sociology of the Black Family, and Introduction to Sociology

Inner City Studies Education Courses: History of Culture and Ethnic Groups, The Inner City Community and Inner City Organization and Institution Building

Additional Information 

CURRENT POSITION

2004-present: Assistant Director, Northeastern Illinois University’s Jacob H. Carruthers Center for Inner City Studies, Chicago, IL.

2006-present: Assistant Professor, Inner City Studies. Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago, IL.

SCHOOL-BASED INTERVENTIONS AND PROGRAMS

Walter Q. Gresham Elementary School (Chicago Public School). 1991-2001. Developed and coordinated an all males program for identified “at-risk” boys in grades 5 through 8. Conducted in biweekly sessions designed to carry out conflict resolution, anger management, individual counseling and mentoring, social and cultural enrichment, decision-making skills, social competence, resistance skills and normative beliefs. The goal of this program is to reduce insubordination, fighting, gang participation, drug use and other anti-social behaviors among participants.

Asa Phillip Randolph Magnet School (Chicago Public School). 1991-1998. As described above. Target Population-grades 1 through 8.

Hirsch Metropolitan High School (Chicago Public School). 1996-1998. As a member of the Hirsch Metropolitan High School Probation Team, I conducted a program for the most “at-risk” boys identified by the school Principal, Counselors and school Disciplinarian. These young men were identified to participate in this mentorship program due to problems with truancy, poor grades, gang-related activity and anti-social behavior. I started with a group of (15) boys in September 1996. By the time the school year ended, the group had mushroomed to (40) forty boys. By 1998, the group consisted of over 100 boys.

Tanner Elementary School (Chicago Public School). April 20th. Planned, implemented and conducted a rites of passage program for over (100) one hundred 4th, 5th, and 6th grade boys. The goal of the rites of passage was to introduce the participants to traditional African value systems and character development.

Jensen/Miller Scholastic Academy (Chicago Public School) 1991 through 1993. Developed and coordinate an all males program for identified “at-risk” boys in grades 3 through 8. Conducted in biweekly sessions designed to carry out conflict resolution, anger management, individual counseling and mentoring, social and cultural enrichment, decision-making skills, social competence, resistance skills and normative beliefs. The goal of this program is to reduce insubordination, fighting, gang participation, drug use and other anti-social behaviors among participants.

Frazier Elementary School (Chicago Public Schools) 1991 through 1992. As described above.

West Pullman School (Chicago Public Schools) Jan. 6th through Feb. 28th, 1992. Planned, implemented and coordinated the Culture Alive Program. This program consisted of over 25 visual and performing artists, a host of cultural vendors and educators who converged on the school during this period to bring each child and classroom from kindergarten to 8th grade the rich and diverse cultures of Africa. The program culminated with a school wide taste of Africa and two assemblies.

GRANTS

Principal Writer (January 2007) Black United Fund of Illinois’ (BUFI) Safety Net Works Grant.

Safety Net Works is an initiative comprised of State of Illinois agencies and community-based organizations formed to help alleviate violence and killing in communities in Illinois. BUFI is headquartered in the South Shore community of Chicago, one of the 17 Safety Net Work target communities. As the Principal Writer of the grant I developed the Coalition of Organizational, Neighborhood and Network Empowerment through Culture, Talent and Spirituality (CONNECTS @ South Shore), a youth violence prevention initiative designed to reduce violence among youth ages 12 to 24 in South Shore. The purpose of CONNECTS is to foster community partnerships through strong relations among the youths, families, schools, faith-based organizations, businesses, parks, elected officials and community-based institutions and the Chicago Police Department in South Shore. BUFI was awarded $320,000 grant to implement CONNECTS @ South Shore.

Principal Writer and Program Evaluator (March 2006) The Literacy, Employment and Self-Sufficiency Project (LES) LES seeks to provide literacy, employment and self-sufficiency programs to one hundred (100) “hard to reach” Chicago public housing residents who are significantly in need of workplace literacy and self awareness development. Funding- 150,000.

Co-Writer (March 2006) Grow Your Own Teachers Program. The Grow Our Own Teacher  program (GYO) establishes an initiative to encourage and support paraprofessionals, parents, and other active community members in becoming certified as teachers. GYO seeks to stimulate the development of consortia made up of an institution that prepare teachers (NEIU), a targeted school district (CPS), and a community organization (ACORN Association  of Community Organizations for Reform Now). Working together, these entities are to identify paraeducators and parents who have been leaders in schools with hard-to-staff positions and provide these individuals with the financial and other support they will need to complete teacher preparation programs. The new teachers are then to be placed in positions in the targeted schools. Funding-$40,000 Planning Grant.

TEACHING EXPERIENCE CONTINUED

University of Illinois-Chicago 2004-2006
Community Health Sciences Division Course- Behavioral Sciences in Public Health (Graduate Program)

National-Louis University 1999-2004
Applied Behavioral Sciences Division Course- Methods of Inquiry in the Behavioral Sciences

CONSULTANT / ADVISORY

Board Member, The Diversifying Higher Education Faculty in Illinois Program (DFI). DFI was established by the Illinois General Assembly and signed as Public Act 093-0862 on August 4, 2004. The purpose of DFI is to increase the number of underrepresented faculty and staff in Illinois institutions of higher education and higher education governing boards. 2004-Present

Executive Committee Member, Governor’s Statewide Community Safety & Reentry Working Group. The primary purpose of the committee is to provide recommendations for review by January 2006 for the design of a new statewide reentry system. 2004-present

Founder/Board Chair, The Know Thyself Program INC. Chicago, IL. The Know Thyself program, a not-for-profit community-based organization, does school-based cultural and social enrichment for inner-city youth who live in Chicago’s marginalized communities. 1989-present

Member of the Hirsch Metropolitan High School, Vernon Johns Community Academy and Fulton Elementary School Probation Management Team. In affiliation with the I Had A  Dream, Inc. and National School Services, I monitored school community safety and make recommendations for improvement to the Probation Manager. 1997 to 2000.

Chief Consultant to Chicago Public Schools-School Community Safety & Security Program at Carter Elementary School. Implemented the Kijiji Kwa Amani (village of Peace) Program designed to foster a safe environment for Carter School students. The program included the establishment and training of the Kijiji Kwa Amani Parent Patrol and conflict resolution training for a student leadership group. March 17th 16th, 1995.

Consultant services to Chicago Public Schools Academic and Vocational Education Department. Worked as an advisor to Nansen School on effective Parenting in violent and drug plagued environments. Chicago, IL. April 12th

Consultant services to Hirsch Metropolitan High School Local School Council. Worked as an advisor to the Hirsch School Local School Council on effective approaches to dealing with Violence and Drug Prevention Strategies. May 19th 1994.

Chief Consultant and advisor to Carter School/CANAL Project Curriculum Development Committee on the Infusion of African Centered Topics Into The Chicago Public Schools system wide Objectives and Standards At The Intermediate Level (4-5). This committee produced five lessons in each intermediate subject area (Language Arts, Mathematics, Science and Social Studies). Carter School. Chicago, IL. May 11th through July 15th, 1993.

PRESENTATIONS

Invited University Lectures

“Continuing the Journey: High School and Beyond.” Presentation for the African American Male Resource Center. Chicago State University. Chicago, Illinois. April 24 2009.

“The Corporate Take Over of Hip Hop.” Delta College. University Center, MI. February 2009.

“The Rap Music Industry: Sex, Lies and Videotape.” St. Xavier University. Chicago Illinois. February 2009.

“Hip Hop Generation, Culture, and Leadership.” College of Lake County. Waukegan Illinois. June 2008.

“The Corporate Take Over of Hip Hop.” St. Louis Community College. St. Louis, Missouri. February 2008.

“The Rap Music Industry as Cultural Weaponry for White Supremacy.” Lecture for the Department of Pan-African Studies, the Institute of African American Affairs and the Center of Pan-African Culture. Kent State University. Kent, Ohio. November 3, 2005

“On Lock Down: Disproportionality among African American boys in special education programs and criminal justice systems.” Presentation Social Work and Social Welfare Responses to African American Males: A Research, Public Policy and Intervention Practice Symposium. University of Chicago School of Social Service Administration. Chicago, IL. April 22, 2005

“The Rap Music Industry as Cultural Weaponry for White Supremacy.” Presentation. Northeastern Illinois University. Chicago, IL. February 15, 2005

“The Mass Media: Keepin’ It Unreal.” Presenter for the Olive-Harvey Middle College and The Triumphant Charter School. Olive-Harvey College. Chicago, IL. November 14, 2003.

“The Mass Media: Keepin’ It Unreal.” Presenter for the Feminine Dynamics Rites of Passage Conference. DePaul University. Chicago, Il. October 4, 2003.

“Corporatization of Hip Hop: Voices and Images of the Marginalized.” Guest Lecturer for a course on the mass media and popular culture. Kennedy-King College. Chicago, IL. April 29th, 2003.

“Corporatization of Hip Hop: Voices and Images of the Marginalized.” Presenter/Panelist at the Black Law Students Association Black History Month panel discussion. Northwestern University Law School. Chicago, Il. February 13, 2003.

“The All Mighty Black P Stone Nation: Black Power, Politics and Gang Bangin.” Guest Lecturer for course on Gangs and the Media. University of Illinois-Chicago. Chicago, IL. October 17, 2001.

“Multiculturalism Vs. Ethnocentrism.” Guest Lecturer for course on Instructional Strategies for Diverse Populations. Loyola University. Chicago, IL. April 23, 1998.

“African Origins of Civilization.” Guest Presenter for the African American Students Association. Northwestern University. Evanston, IL. March 15th, 1992.

Invited Papers

“Reducing Violence and Anti-Social Behavior of Young, Inner-City African American Males:A Rites of Passage Paradigm.” At the 24th Annual International Conference of the National Council for Black Studies. Atlanta, GA., March 17th, 2000.

Conferences

"The Corporatization of Hip Hop: Implications for Identity, Attitudes, and Behavior Among Youth in the African Diaspora”. 32nd Annual Third World Conference. Chicago, Illinois. March 16, 2006

“Hip Hop and the role of the faith community.” The Christian Methodist Episcopal One Church One School National Conference. Oak Lawn, Illinois. October 17, 2003

“America’s consumerist culture and the development of African American Youth: Assessment and Implications.” The 23rd Annual Black Studies Conference. Chicago, IL. April 14th, 2000.

“Violent Death With in the Family.” A National Series of Conferences on Black-On-Black Crime: Prevention and Cures Year 2000. The Institute for Social Justice. Chicago, IL. April 17th, 2000.

“The Role of the Media, the Internet/Computers and Scams and Youth Violence.” A National Series of Conferences on Black-On-Black Crime: Prevention and Cures Year 2000. The Institute for Social Justice. Chicago, IL. April 18th, 2000.

Agencies

“Sociology of Poverty.” Action for Children Agency. In-serviced 100 Action for Children Agency staff on the Sociology of Poverty. Chicago, IL. June 21-23, 2005.

“Gangsta Rap and Images of Blacks in the Media.” Staff and Clients. Bobby Wright Mental Health Center. Chicago, IL. Oct 29th, 1998.

“Images of African American Males in the Media.” Staff and Clients. Community Supportive Living Systems, Inc. Chicago, IL. Feb 24th, 1996.

“Fostering African American Males.” Statewide Foster Parent Conference. State of Illinois Department of Children and Family Services. Chicago, IL. June 6th, 1992.

School Workshops/In-services and Training

“Lessons Learned from Hip Hop.” 7th Community School Intra-City Student Council. Gary, Indiana. February 2009.

“Coalition Building for Youth Violence Prevention.” Safety Net Works Training-Illinois Department of Human Services. Chicago Illinois. March 2008.

“The Hip Hop Generation Workshop (Teacher Training).” Chicago Public Schools-Richards Career Academy. Chicago Illinois. March 2008.

“The Hip Hop Generation Workshop (Student Workshop).” Chicago Public Schools-Richards Career Academy. Chicago Illinois. April 2008.

“What Teachers Need to Know About Classroom Management for Hard-To-Reach Youth.” Chicago Public Schools Chicago New Teacher Center. Chicago, Illinois. April 2008.

“The Hip Hop Generation Workshop (Teacher Training).” Chicago Public Schools-Corliss Career Academy. Chicago Illinois. March 2008.

“The National Stop the Violence Campaign (Panelist).” Chicago Public Schools. Chicago, Illinois. April 2008.

“The Rap Music Industry and The Battle for the Minds, Bodies, and Spirits of Black Youth.” Carter Temple. Tyler, Texas. April 2008.

Center and Periphery: Hip Hop As An Expression of American Social Organization. Associated Colleges of the Midwest-Urban Studies Program. Chicago, Illinois. May 2008.

“The Hip Hop Generation Workshop (Student Workshop).” Chicago Public Schools-Hirsch Metropolitan Career Academy. Chicago Illinois. May 12 through 15 2008.

Annual Youth Leadership Conference. Gary Indiana

“The Hip Hop Generation Workshop (Student Workshop).” Chicago Public Schools-Corliss Career Academy. Chicago Illinois. May 16 2008.

“The Hip Hop Generation Workshop (Student Workshop).” Chicago Public Schools-Moses-Vines High School. Chicago Illinois. May 27 2008.

“The Hip Hop Generation Workshop (Student Workshop).” Chicago Public Schools-Wells High School. Chicago Illinois. May 29 2008.

“The Hip Hop Generation Workshop (Student Workshop).” Chicago Public Schools-Clemente High School. Chicago Illinois. May 30 2008.

“The Rap Music Industry and The Battle for the Minds, Bodies, and Spirits of Black Youth.” Christian Methodist Church. Tulsa, Oklahoma. June 2008.

“The Corporatization of Hip Hop and Its Impact on School Communities.” University of St. Thomas Summer Wellness Institute-A Framework for Providing A Safe and Healthy Learning Environment. Racine, Wisconsin. June 17 2008.

“Using Hip Hop to Improve the Behavior of Hard to Reach Youth.” University of St. Thomas Summer Wellness Institute-A Framework for Providing A Safe and Healthy Learning Environment. Racine, Wisconsin. June 17 2008.

“The Corporatization of Hip Hop and Its Impact on School Communities.” University of St. Thomas Summer Wellness Institute-A Framework for Providing A Safe and Healthy Learning Environment. Madison, Wisconsin. June 24 2008.

“Using Hip Hop to Improve the Behavior of Hard to Reach Youth.” University of St. Thomas Summer Wellness Institute-A Framework for Providing A Safe and Healthy Learning Environment. Madison, Wisconsin. June 24 2008.

“Lessons Learned from Hip-Hop: Using the Voice of Youth as a Transformative Tool to Create Positive, Pro-Social Behavior.” Milwaukee Public Schools. Milwaukee, Wisconsin. November 2008.

“The Hip Hop Generation Workshop.” Conducted workshop with 500 males between the ages of 12 to 18 on the impact of the rap music industry on the images, attitudes and beliefs of young, urban males. The Chicago Council on Urban Affairs-Roosevelt University. Chicago, IL. May 18th, 2006

“Hip Hop as a tool for increasing literacy among inner-city youth.” Workshop training for students. Chicago Vocational High School. Chicago, IL. February 16, 2006

“Hip Hop and the faith community.” Conducted workshops on the role that the faith community can play in influencing positive images and voices in the rap music industry. The One Church One School National Conference. Chicago, IL. October 21, 2005

“Hip Hop as a tool for increasing literacy among inner-city youth.” Parent workshop training for parents at South Shore High School. South Shore High School. Chicago, IL. October 7, 2005

“Implications of Rap Music on the Behavior of Adolescents.” No Child Left Behind Committee. Kenwood High School. Chicago, IL. February 8, 2005

“Survey of Health Disparities in Chicago’s Communities of Color: Implications for Black Social Workers.” Training for the National Association of Black Social Workers. Chicago Chapter. Chicago, IL. February 7, 2005

“Corporatization of Hip Hop: Voices and Images of the Marginalized.” In-serviced 400 Chicago Public School Social Workers on the influences of rap music on the behavior of inner-city youth and implications for the social worker. Chicago Public Schools Social Work Department Chicago, Il. June 23, 2003.

“Conflict Resolution.” Parent Workshop Series. Beethoven School. Chicago, IL. July 5th, 6th, 9th, 16th, 23rd, 1998.

“School Rules, Home Rules and Gang Rules.” Parent Workshop Series. Fulton School. Chicago, IL. July 14th & 24th, 1998.

“Rites of Passage: Positive Adolescent Choices Training.” Student Workshop Series. Ryder School. Chicago, IL. March 12th through April 30th, 1997.

“Teaching Inner City Youth.” Teacher In-service series. St. Sabina School. Chicago, IL. March 13th, April 24th, 1996.

“Inner-City Youth Culture.” Student and Parent Workshop. Spaulding High School. Chicago, IL. April 25th, 1996.

“Societal Violence and its Effect on Inner City Youth.” Englewood High School. Chicago, IL. May 7th, 1996.

“Safe and Drug Free Schools.” Student (5) Series Workshop. Vernon Johns Community Academy. Chicago, IL. March through May 1996.

“Conflict Management Training.” Student Workshop Series. Vernon Johns Community Academy. Chicago, IL. March 13th, 20th, & 27th, 1996.

“Training Students to be Conflict Managers.” Student Workshop Series. Vernon Johns Community Academy. Chicago, IL. Feb. 26th, 27th, 28th, & 29th, 1996.

“Training Students and Staff to be Conflict Managers.” Student and Staff Workshop Series. Vernon Johns Community Academy. Chicago, IL. Feb. 20th, 21rst, 22nd, 23rd, 26th, 28th, & 29th, 1996.

“Teaching Your Child to Handle Conflict.” Parent Workshop. Vernon Johns Community Academy. Chicago, IL. June 21st, 1995.

“Infusing Conflict Resolution Into School Curriculum.” Teacher In-service. Vernon Johns Community Academy. Chicago, IL. May 15th, 1995.

“Conflict Resolution Training.” Student Workshop. Vernon Johns Community Academy. Chicago, IL. May 13th, 1995.

“Behavior Modification of Black Boys.” Teacher In-service. Gompers Elementary School. Chicago, IL. July 7th, 1995.

“African Origins of Civilization.” Teacher In-Service. Harlan Academy. Chicago, IL. Feb. 24th, 1994.

“Drug Free Schools.” Student Workshop. Lindbloom Technical High School. Chicago, IL. May 26th, 1994.

“Self Esteem, Cultural Awareness, and Self Discipline.” Student Workshop Retreat. Terrell School. Chicago, IL. Summer 1993.

“A Comprehensive Approach to School Based Violence and Drug Prevention Programs.” A (7) series workshop for school administrators. Chicago Public Schools Region Six. Chicago, IL. June 6th through July 2nd, 1992.

“Assisting pupils with home work and study skills.” Parent Workshop. Bonn Temps School. Chicago IL. June 10th, 1992.

“Home and School Discipline in Partnership.” Parent Workshop. Chicago Public Schools Drug Prevention Program. Chicago, IL. June 6th, 1992.

“Rites of Passage: A Model for Socialization.” Teacher, Parent and Student Workshop. James Weldon Johnson Elementary School. Chicago, IL. Jan. 23rd, 1992.

“Afrocentric Curriculum.” Teacher In-service. West Pullman Elementary School. Chicago, IL. Feb. 4th, 1992.

“Teaching the Black Male Student.” Teacher In-service. Simon Guggenheim Elementary School. Chicago, IL. Feb. 5th, 1992.

“An Afrocentric Approach to Raising Black Boys.” Parent Workshop. Beethoven School. Chicago IL. Feb. 5th, 1992.

“Raising The Inner-City Child.” Parent Workshop. Englewood High School. Chicago, IL. Feb. 8th, 1992.

“The African Centered Curriculum.” Parent Workshop. Anthony Overton Elementary School. Chicago, IL. Apr. 9th, 1992.

“African Contributions to Civilization: Curriculum Infusion.” A Multimedia Presentation for Teachers. Carver Area High School. Chicago, IL. May, 12th, 1992.

“Improving Your Child’s Self-Image.” Parent Workshop. Robert Fulton School. Chicago, IL. May 13th, 1992.

“Youth Gang Awareness.” System-wide teacher in-service. Chicago Public Schools Department of Drug Education. Ramada Inn. Chicago, IL. May 16th, 1992.

“Is Your Child Gang Banging?” Parent Workshop. Robert Fulton School. Chicago, IL. May 29th, 1992.

“Gangs, Violence, and Drugs in Chicago Public Schools.” School Community Retreat at the Hickory Hill Center. Tilden High School. Lisle, IL. May 30th, 1992.

 

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