ESCI-109 Chicago Rocks! Geology in the City, 3 cr. Chicago has been at the bottom of the sea, buried under a mile of ice, and set in a warm, tropical paradise. Such diverse changes have shaped Chicago and the surrounding region, inluding the lake, the rivers, the ground we walk on (and build on), and the decisions we make about land use, resources, and waste management. Explore Chicago Rocks - as well as water, weather, and land forms - in the context of current issues related to resource use and the environment. Field trips and hands-on experiences highlight the extent to which geology influences the character of the Chicago area.

ESCI 109W Muddy Waters: Chicago's Environmental Geology, 3 cr. Chicago's vital bodies of water - Lake Michigan, Chicago River, and others - interact with the urban landscape and the soils and rocks of the ground beneath us. These interactions influence environmental issues in our everyday lives, including "what happens when water goes down the drain?" and "Why do certain areas flood after it rains?" Explore these questions in the context of Chicago's geology, to evaluate the critical interactions affecting soil and water contamination, flooding, and our drinking water. Laboratory analysis of water and soil, collected on local field trips, will clear the "muddy water" about how environmental geology impacts your neighborhood. This course satisfies the General Education Program requirement for a Natural Science Laboratory course.

ESCI-121 Introduction to Earth Science, 3 cr. Basic concepts of geology, meteorology, oceanography, and the solar system. Discussion of topics of current interest in the earth sciences. Laboratory involves the study of minerals, rocks, maps, and weather instruments. Lecture 2 hours, lab 2 hours. Prereq.: MATH 092. This course satisfies the General Education Program requirement for a Natural Science Laboratory course.

ESCI-123 Geology, Resources, and Environment, 3 cr. Earth, its structure, composition and resources. Mineral and energy resources, their formation and distribution, their supply
and demand projections for the future. Water resources and water quality. Environmental impact of resources, nuclear and other waste disposal, geological aspects of earthquake and
volcanic hazards. Lecture 3 hours. Prereq.: MATH 091.

ESCI-207 Global Climate and Weather, 4 cr. This course examines the Earth as a system, focusing on linkages between the oceans and atmosphere related to weather and global climate. Fundamentals of the structure and composition of oceans and atmosphere provide the foundation for investigation of chemical, physical, and biological interactions in weather-related processes and global climate. Topics include basic principles of meteorology, classification of present-day climates, climate variables, paleoclimates, and evidence for global climate change over geologic time. Laboratory analysis of maps, charts, instruments, and data supplements lecture and discussion. Lecture 2 hours, lab 2 hours. Prereq.: high school chemistry and physics or equivalent strongly recommended.

ESCI-211 Physical Geology, 4 cr. Detailed study of the materials comprising the earth’s crust and interior and the forces acting to change its surface; the origin of continents
and ocean basins in light of recent geological research. Lecture 3 hours, lab 2 hours.

ESCI-306 Rocks and Minerals, 4 cr. A detailed introduction to rocks and minerals — the essential materials of the solid earth. Classification and systematic study of the chemical
and physical properties of the common rock-forming mineral groups; textural and mineral compositional studies of common igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rock groups.
Lecture 2 hours and lab 3 hours. Prereq.: ESCI-211 and some chemical background.

ESCI-308 Geology of the National Parks, 3 cr. Study of the geological processes producing and controlling the lands within the National Park System. Lecture 3 hours. Prereq.:
ESCI-121 or ESCI-211.

ESCI-309 Geochemistry, 3 cr. Chemical composition of the earth, element abundances, cosmochemistry, meteorites, origin of elements, geochronology, geothermometry, geobarometry, principles of trace element distribution. Igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary environments. Lecture 3 hours. Prereq.: CHEM-211 and ESCI-206 or consent of instructor.

ESCI-311 Mineralogy, 4 cr. Crystallographic principles, crystal systems, and crystal chemistry in the study of minerals. Composition, structure, occurrence, and uses of common
minerals. Study of hand specimens and thin sections of minerals and the use of physical and optical properties in their identification. Lecture 3 hours and lab 2 hours. Prereq.: CHEM-211 and ESCI-306.

ESCI-312 Historical Geology, 4 cr. Evolution of the earth and its flora and fauna, paleoecology; principles of paleontological stratigraphy and techniques of relative and absolute age determination. Lecture 3 hours, lab 2 hours. Prereq.: ESCI-121 or ESCI-211.

ESCI-314 Paleontology, 4 cr. Principles, study of invertebrate phyla, morphology, taxonomy, evolution and paleoecology, as well as occurrence of various fossil types. Lecture 2 hours, lab 3 hours. Prereq.: ESCI-212 and BIOL-ZOOL-211.

ESCI-315 Glacial and Quaternary Geology, 3 cr. Investigations of the geologic processes that have been at work during the last two million years, including the stratigraphic and environmental aspects of glacial and recent sediments. Lecture 3 hours. Prereq.: ESCI-121 or ESCI-211.

ESCI-316 Stratigraphy, 4 cr. Principles of stratigraphy including classification of rock units, methods of correlation, general relationship of diastrophism to the depositional sedimentary
patterns; systematic study of the more important stratified rocks of North America. Lecture 2 hours, lab 3 hours. Prereq.: ESCI-212 and ESCI-317.

ESCI-317 Principles of Sedimentation, 4 cr. The process governing the formation, transportation, and deposition of sediments, and the alterations that transform them into
sedimentary rocks. The practical application of these techniques is developed in the laboratory. Lecture 2 hours, lab 3 hours. Prereq.: ESCI-206.

ESCI-319 Petrology, 4 cr. Classification of rocks. Study of mineralogical and textural relations of major rock groups in hand specimens and thin sections. Chemical composition
of rocks. Chemical and petrographic data interpretation. Interrelation of petrological processes and plate tectonics. Description of selected and widely referred petrologic complexes. Lecture 2 hours, lab 3 hours. Prereq.: ESCI-311.

ESCI-320 Limnology, 3 cr. Physical processes in the lake environment with special attention to Lake Michigan; also human influence on lake processes. Lecture 3 hours. Prereq.:
nine hours in earth science or related natural science or consent of instructor.

ESCI-322 Economic Geology, 4 cr. Geological occurrence, distribution, classification and origin of major mineral deposits and mineral fuels, and ore petrography. Systematic description of selected mineral resource provinces. Geological, geochemical, and geophysical methods in mineral exploration programs. Case histories. Current developments in search
for minerals. Mineral property assessment, economics, projections, and implications. Lecture 3 hours and lab 2 hours. Prereq.: ESCI-206 and ESCI-331.

ESCI-325 Seminar in Earth Science (title varies), 3 cr. Selected topics of current research interest. Consult the Schedule of Classes for specific topics. Prereq.: advanced standing in earth science and consent of instructor.

ESCI-326 Independent Study in Earth Science, 3 cr. Research in the geological sciences, oceanography, meteorology, or astronomy under the guidance of a faculty member.
Independent Studies require the approval of the instructor, department chair and the appropriate College Dean. Prereq.: nine hours in earth science and consent of instructor.

ESCI-327 Aqueous Environmental Geology, 4 cr. This course builds on students' fundamental knowledge of aqueous chemistry and highlights applications relevant to geological sciences. The course focuses on using chemical principles to study surface and near surface water and water-rock/water-soil interactions. Topics include basic thermodynamics, chemical speciation, mineral solubility, complexation, acid-base reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions, carbonate chemistry, and an introduction to geochemical modeling. The practical applications of these topics will develop quantitative skills required for addressing geological and environmental issues. Lecture 4 hours. Prereq.: ESCI 211 Minimum Grade of C and CHEM 212 Minimum Grade of C

ESCI-328 Marine Geology, 3 cr. Origin and development of the ocean basins and their margins, waves and currents, coastal processes, sedimentation, and stratigraphy. Lecture
3 hours. Prereq.: ESCI-121 or ESCI-211.

ESCI-329 Soil Science, 3 cr. Physical and chemical factors in soil formation; composition of soil materials. Relation of soils to parent material; soil classifications, soil as a resource.
Lecture 3 hours. Prereq.: ESCI-121, ESCI-211, or consent of instructor.

ESCI-330 Structural Geology, 4 cr. Spatial and stress- strain relationships of rock deformation, genetic and descriptive aspects of folds, faults, joints, etc., structures related to
magmatism and metamorphism, polyphase deformation, and geophysical methods of structural geology, diapirs, cleavage and schistosity, impact structures, tectonites, and
petrofabric diagrams. Lecture 3 hours, lab 2 hours. Prereq.: ESCI-211, ESCI-212, and PHYS-201.

ESCI-331 Geological Structures and Map Interpretation, 4 cr. Determination of the attitude and thickness of inclined strata and their bearing on outcrop patterns; preparation of
geological maps from given field data; and interpretations of aerial photos, topographic maps, and geological maps depicting folds, faults, unconformities, and intrusive bodies;
preparation of geological cross sections. Lecture 2 hours, lab 3 hours. Prereq.: ESCI-211.

ESCI-333 Internship in Earth Science, 3cr. Field experience at an off-campus site. Student will work a minimum of 150 hours with an earth science agency or organization.
Evaluation will be based in part on the student's creation of a tangible product. Details of internship will be arranged by the student, faculty advisor, and site supervisor. Prereq.:
30 undergraduate or fifteen graduate credit hours in Earth Science and consent of instructor and department coordinator.

ESCI-335 Meteorology, 4 cr. Introduction to the processes at work in the earth’s atmosphere and the physical laws that control them; horizontal and vertical circulations, atmospheric stability, radiation balance, precipitation, air masses, frontogenesis, and severe weather. Laboratory work involves extensive use of maps and charts. Lecture 3 hours, lab 2
hours. Prereq.: PHYS-201.

ESCI-337 Principles of Hydrogeology, 4 cr. Introduction to the theory and principles of groundwater flow as well as streamflow. Topics include the hydrologic equation,
evapo- transpiration, well drilling and testing, porosity and permeability, Darcy’s law, confined and unconfined aquifers, flow-nets, geology of groundwater occurrence, water table
maps, geophysical exploration methods, well logs, streamflow and hydrographs. Lecture 3 hours; lab 2 hours. Prereq.: ESCI-211 and MATH-106.

ESCI-338 Petrography of Fine-Grained Sediments, 3 cr. Mineralogical and chemical analysis of shale, clay, glacial till, soil and related sedimentary materials using x-ray diffraction and atomic absorption techniques. Analyses are both qualitative and quantitative in nature. Lecture 2 hours, lab 2 hours. Prereq.: ESCI-206 or ESCI-311.

ESCI-339 Field Hydrogeology, 4 cr. Field techniques of measuring infiltration, soil moisture, aquifer permeability and hydraulic conductivity. Practice in conducting geophysical
surveys and drilling, logging, and developing ground water wells. Methods of sampling water for chemical analysis. Visits to drilling, monitoring, and waste management sites. Methods
of recording, analyzing, mapping, and reporting field data. Lecture 2 hours, lab 3 hours. Prereq.: ESCI-337.

ESCI-340 Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering, 3 cr. Introduction to basic concepts of design and engineering of earth materials. Soil and rock mechanics, interaction of soil and rock with water, effective stress, failure models, rock and soil mass behavior, and materials testing. Especially useful for those interested in environmental and engineering aspects of geology. Lecture 3 hours. Prereq.: MATH-104 or MATH-106 and eight credit hours in Earth Science at the 200-level or higher.

ESCI-390 Field Geology, 5 cr. Introduction to field methods including pace-and-compass and plane table mapping, field trips to south-central Wisconsin, preparation of geologic
maps and reports from field data. Attendance at a field camp for 14 days with additional on-campus lectures and laboratory work. Lecture 3 hours, Lab 3 hours. Prereq.: ESCI-
206 and ESCI-331.

ESCI-401 Environmental Stability — Lake Michigan, 3 cr. Origin and development of Lake Michigan; paleolimnology; the eutrophication process and its relationship to human
and industrial wastes. Emphasis placed on field and laboratory techniques. Lecture 2 hours, lab 1 hour. Prereq.: graduate standing, ESCI-320, and advanced standing in physical or biological sciences or consent of instructor.

ESCI-406 Aqueous Geochemistry, 3 cr. Introduction to aqueous geochemistry, including chemical thermodynamics, carbonate solubility, organic compounds in natural waters, silicate
equilibria, redox equilibria, and trace elements. Methods of evaluation and display of water quality data. Lecture 3 hours. Prereq.: Graduate standing, ESCI-407, and CHEM-212.

ESCI-407 Advanced Hydrogeology, 3 cr. Occurrence, movement, storage, and distribution of ground water; problems pertaining to water quality; sea water intrusion, water
pollution and recharge of aquifers. Lecture 2 hours, lab 2 hours. Prereq.: graduate standing and ESCI-337.

ESCI-408 Advanced Mineralogy and Crystallography, 3 cr. Advanced concepts in mineralogy with reference to crystal chemistry and structural crystallography of some
selected mineral groups. Lecture 2 hours, lab 2 hours. Prereq.: graduate standing in earth science and ESCI-311.

ESCI-409 Igneous Petrology, 4 cr. Principles and applications of phase equilibrium studies of silicate systems at high temperatures and pressures to petrological problems;
theories of igneous differentiation processes with examples from selected localities; laboratory studies of petrographic methods and petrochemical calculations; written and
oral student presentations. Lecture 3 hours, lab 2 hours. Prereq.: graduate standing, ESCI-311, and ESCI-319.

ESCI-411 Clay Mineralogy, 4 cr. Structure, physical and chemical properties, origin, and occurrence of the clay mineral groups; economic importance of clays, identification of
clays using x-ray diffraction techniques. Lecture 2 hours, lab 2 hours. Prereq.: graduate standing and ESCI-311.

ESCI-415 Plate Tectonics, 3 cr. Earth’s interior and configuration of lithospheric plates; plate tectonics in relation to seafloor spreading and continental drift; ridges, trenches,
transform faults, island arcs, and rift systems; plate subduction and marginal ocean basins; magma generation, metamorphism and ore deposits at plate boundaries; origin
of mountain belts ; pre-Mesozoic plate tectonics and growth of continents. Lecture 3 hours. Prereq.: graduate standing, ESCI 319, and ESCI-330.

ESCI-416 Applied Hydrology, 3 cr. Water budget and its various components; hydrologic theories, methodologies, and techniques of data analysis used to estimate and/or
determine values for each component of the water budget; computer modeling of water budget components is introduced. Lecture 2 hours, lab 2 hours. Prereq.: graduate standing
and ESCI-337 or consent of instructor.

ESCI-418 Ore Deposits, 4 cr. Origin, composition, and migration of ore-bearing fluids; classification of ore deposits with reference to well-known mining districts, geothermometry,
and isotopic studies; metallogenic provinces and epochs; ore microscopy; property evaluation and ore-reserve estimation. Lab studies of ore-gangue samples from representative
mines. Lecture 3 hours, lab 2 hours. Prereq.: graduate standing, ESCI-331 and ESCI-322.

ESCI-419 Exploration and Geostatistics, 4 cr. Course introduces all areas of mathematical geology and then reviews basic statistics as it applies to geologic data. It then
draws on this basis to derive the geostatistical method of estimation. This method is illustrated in theory and practice with real data on computerized mapping system. Lecture 3 hours, lab 2 hours. Prereq.: graduate standing, MATH-104. MATH-106 strongly recommended.

ESCI-425 Special Topics in Earth Science (title varies), 3 cr. Selected topics of current research interest. Consult the Schedule of Classes for specific topics. Lecture 3 hours.
Prereq.: graduate standing in earth science.

ESCI-498 Master’s Research Project In Earth Science, 3 cr. Directed research, analysis, and presentation of a research paper on an important topic in geology/earth science.
The written research paper must be orally defended. This course is required for students who choose to fulfill graduation requirements for an M.S. in Earth Science under the “Departmental Research Paper” option (Option 2). Independent Studies require the approval of the instructor, department chair and the appropriate College Dean. Prereq.: Candidacy in Earth Science.

ESCI-499 Master’s Thesis In Earth Science, 6 cr. Guidance of students conducting research and writing a thesis to fulfill the requirements for the degree of Master of Science
in Earth Science (Option 1). Independent Studies require the approval of the instructor, department chair and the appropriate College Dean. Prereq.: Candidacy in Earth Science.

ESCI-OC-324 Oceanography, 4 cr. Ocean boundaries and bottom topography. Origin and evolution of ocean basins. Nature and characteristics of coastal and marine sediments.
Gathering of oceanographic data and development of the marine sciences. Lecture 2 hours; lab 3 hours. Prereq.: ESCI-121 or 211, and ESCI-207.

ESCI-OC-334 Coastal Marine Research, 4 cr. Study of marine coastal processes. Field trip to Atlantic, Pacific, or Mediterranean coast. Preceded and followed by on-campus meetings. Field experience 4 hours, lecture 1 hour, lab 1 hour. Prereq.: advanced standing in the sciences and permission of the instructor.

ESCI-OC-335 Ocean Resources, 3 cr. Comprehensive study of the exploration, exploitation and management of the ocean resources. Lecture 3 hours. Prereq.: ESCI-121 or 211,
and ESCI-207.