Goals, Outcomes, & Performance Criteria
Based on the standards set forth by the professional organization, Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL*), the Goals and Standards are defined respectively as "Domains" and "Standards". Following the table of "Degree Program Standards" are detailed goal and outcomes statements as published by the professional organizations in the field.
*Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL) is a global education association based in Alexandria, Virginia, in the United States. TESOL's mission is to ensure excellence in English language teaching to speakers of other languages.
Degree Program Standards
Students know, understand, and use the major concepts, theories, and research related to the nature and acquisition of language to construct learning environments that support ESOL students' language and literacy development and content area achievement.
OUTCOME/Standard 1.a.Describing language. Students demonstrate understanding of language as a system and demonstrate a high level of competence in helping ESOL students acquire and use English in listening, speaking, reading, and writing for social and academic purposes.
Performance Criterion 1.a.1.Apply knowledge of phonology (the sound system) to help ESOL students develop oral, reading, and writing (including spelling) skills in English.
Performance Criterion 1.a.2. Apply knowledge of morphology (the structure of words) to assist ESOL students' development of oral and literacy skills in English.
Performance Criterion 1.a.3. Apply knowledge of syntax (phrase and sentence structure) to assist ESOL students in developing written and spoken English.
Performance Criterion 1.a.4. Apply understanding of semantics (word/sentence meaning) to assist ESOL students in acquiring and productively using a wide range of vocabulary in English.
Performance Criterion 1.a.5. Apply knowledge of pragmatics (the effect of context on language) to help ESOL students communicate effectively and use English appropriately for a variety of purposes in spoken and written language, and in formal and informal settings.
Performance Criterion 1.a.6. Demonstrate ability to help ESOL students develop social and academic language skills in English.
Performance Criterion 1.a.7. Demonstrate ability to help ESOL students acquire a range of genres, rhetorical and discourse structures, and writing conventions in English.
Performance Criterion 1.a.8. Demonstrate understanding of the nature and value of World Englishes and dialect variation, and build on the language that ESOL students bring in order to extend their linguistic repertoire.
Performance Criterion 1.a.9. Locate and use linguistic resources to learn about the structure of English and of students' home languages.
Performance Criterion 1.a.10. Demonstrate proficiency in English and serve as a good language model for ESOL students.
OUTCOME/Standard 1.b. Language acquisition and development. Students understand and apply concepts, theories, research, and practice to facilitate the acquisition of a primary and a new language in and out of classroom settings.
Performance Criterion 1.b.1. Provide rich exposure to English.
Performance Criterion 1.b.2. Provide comprehensible input and scaffolding.
Performance Criterion 1.b.3. Provide opportunities for meaningful interaction.
Performance Criterion 1.b.4. Create a secure, positive, and motivating learning environment.
Performance Criterion 1.b.5. Understand and apply current theories and research in language and literacy development.
Performance Criterion 1.b.6. Recognize and build on the processes and stages of English language and literacy development.
Performance Criterion 1.b.7. Recognize the importance of ESOL students' home languages and language varieties and build on these skills as a foundation for learning English.
Performance Criterion 1.b.8. Understand and apply knowledge of sociocultural and political variables to facilitate the process of learning English.
Performance Criterion 1.b.9. Understand and apply knowledge of the role of individual learner variables in the process of learning English.
Performance Criterion 1.b.10. Provide appropriate instruction and feedback.
Performance Criterion 1.b.11. Help ESOL students to communicate in socially and culturally appropriate ways.
Performance Criterion 1.b.12. Help ESOL students develop academic language proficiency.
Performance Criterion 1.b.13. Help ESOL students develop effective language learning strategies.
Students know, understand, and use the major concepts, principles, theories, and research related to the nature and role of culture and cultural groups to construct learning environments that support ESOL students' cultural identities, language and literacy development, and content area achievement.
OBJECTIVE/Standard 2.a. Nature and Role of Culture. Students know, understand, and use the major concepts, principles, theories, and research related to the nature and role of culture in language development and academic achievement that support individual students' learning.
Performance Criterion 2.a.1. Understand and apply knowledge about cultural values and beliefs in the context of teaching and learning ESL.
Performance Criterion 2.a.2. Understand and apply knowledge about the effects of racism, stereotyping, and discrimination to ESL teaching and learning.
Performance Criterion 2.a.3. Understand and apply knowledge about home/school communication to enhance ESL teaching and build partnerships with ESOL families.
Performance Criterion 2.a.4. Understand and apply concepts about the interrelationship between language and culture.
OBJECTIVE/Standard 2.b. Cultural Groups and Identity. Students know, understand, and use knowledge of how cultural groups and students' cultural identities affect language learning and school achievement.
Performance Criterion 2.b.1. Use a range of resources, including the Internet, to learn about world cultures and cultures of students in their classrooms and apply that learning to instruction.
Performance Criterion 2.b.2. Understand and apply knowledge about how an individual's cultural identity affects their ESL learning and how levels of cultural identity will vary widely among students.
Performance Criterion 2.b.3. Understand and apply knowledge about cultural conflicts and home-area events that can have an impact on ESOL students' learning.
Performance Criterion 2.b.4. Understand and apply knowledge about the impact of students' socioeconomic status, race, religion, class, national origin, disability, and gender on learning and teaching ESL.
Performance Criterion 2.b.5. Understand and apply knowledge of U.S. immigration history and patterns in teaching ESL.
Students know, understand, and use standards-based practices and strategies related to planning, implementing, and managing ESL and content instruction, including classroom organization, teaching strategies for developing and integrating language skills, and choosing and adapting classroom resources.
OBJECTIVE/Standard 3.a. Planning for Standards-Based ESL and Content Instruction. Students know, understand, and apply concepts, research, and best practices to plan classroom instruction in a supportive learning environment for ESOL students. Students serve as effective English language models, as they plan for multilevel classrooms with learners from diverse backgrounds using standards-based ESL and content curriculum.
Performance Criterion 3.a.1. Plan standards-based ESL and content instruction.
Performance Criterion 3.a.2. Create environments that promote standards-based language learning in supportive, accepting classrooms and schools.
Performance Criterion 3.a.3. Plan students' learning experiences based on assessment of language proficiency and prior knowledge.
Performance Criterion 3.a.4. Provide for particular needs of students with limited formal schooling (LFS) in their L1.
OBJECTIVE/Standard 3.b. Managing and Implementing Standards-Based ESL and Content Instruction. Students know, manage, and implement a variety of standards-based teaching strategies and techniques for developing and integrating English listening, speaking, reading, and writing, and for accessing the core curriculum. Students support ESOL students in accessing the core curriculum as they learn language and academic content together.
Performance Criterion 3.b.1. Organize learning around standards-based subject matter and language learning objectives.
Performance Criterion 3.b.2. Incorporate activities, tasks, and assignments that develop authentic uses of language, as students learn about content-area material.
Performance Criterion 3.b.3. Provide activities and materials that integrate listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
Performance Criterion 3.b.4. Develop students' listening skills for a variety of academic and social purposes.
Performance Criterion 3.b.5. Develop students' speaking skills for a variety of academic and social purposes.
Performance Criterion 3.b.6. Provide standards-based instruction that builds upon students' oral English to support learning to read and write.
Performance Criterion 3.b.7. Provide standards-based reading instruction adapted to ESOL learners.
Performance Criterion 3.b.8. Provide standards-based writing instruction adapted to ESOL learners. Develop students' writing through a range of activities, from sentence formation to expository writing.
OBJECTIVE/Standard 3.c. Using Resources Effectively in ESL and Content Instruction. Students are familiar with a wide range of standards-based materials, resources, and technologies, and choose, adapt, and use them in effective ESL and content teaching.
Performance Criterion 3.c.1. Select, adapt, and use culturally responsive, age appropriate, and linguistically accessible materials.
Performance Criterion 3.c.2. Select materials and other resources that are appropriate to students' developing
language and content area abilities, including appropriate use of L1.
Performance Criterion 3.c.3. Employ an appropriate variety of materials for language learning, including books, visual aids, props, and realia.
Performance Criterion 3.c.4. Use appropriate technological resources to enhance language and content-area instruction for ESOL students (e.g., Web, software, computers, and related devices).
Performance Criterion 3.c.5. Use software and Internet resources effectively in ESL and content instruction.
Students understand issues of assessment and use standards-based assessment measures with ESOL students.
OBJECTIVE/Standard 4.a. Issues of Assessment for ESL. Students understand various issues of assessment (e.g., cultural and linguistic bias; political, social, and psychological factors) in assessment, IQ, and special education testing (including gifted and talented); the importance of standards; and the difference between language proficiency and other types of assessment (e.g., standardized achievement tests of overall mastery), as they affect ESOL student learning.
Performance Criterion 4.a.1. Demonstrate an understanding of the purposes of assessment as they relate to ESOL learners and use results appropriately.
Performance Criterion 4.a.2. Demonstrate an understanding of the quality indicators of assessment instruments.
Performance Criterion 4.a.3. Demonstrate understanding of the limitations of assessment situations and make accommodations for ESOL students.
Performance Criterion 4.a.4. Distinguish between a language difference, gifted and talented, and special education needs for ESOL students.
OBJECTIVE/Standard 4.b. Language Proficiency Assessment. Students know and use a variety of standards-based language proficiency instruments to inform their instruction and understand their uses for identification, placement, and demonstration of language growth of ESOL students.
Performance Criterion 4.b.1. Understand and implement national and state requirements for identification, reclassification, and exit of ESOL students from language support programs.
Performance Criterion 4.b.2. Understand, develop, and use norm-referenced assessments appropriately with ESOL learners.
Performance Criterion 4.b.3. Understand, develop, and use criterion-referenced assessments appropriately with ESOL learners.
Performance Criterion 4.b.4. Understand, construct, and use assessment measures for a variety of purposes for ESOL students.
Performance Criterion 4.b.5. Assess ESOL learners’ language skills and communicative competence using multiple sources of information.
OBJECTIVE/Standard 4.c. Classroom-Based Assessment for ESL. Students know and use a variety of performance-based assessment tools and techniques to inform instruction.
Performance Criterion 4.c.1. Use performance-based assessment tools and tasks that measure ESOL learners' progress toward state and national standards.
Performance Criterion 4.c.2. Use various instruments and techniques to assess content-area learning (e.g., math, science, social studies) for ESOL learners at varying levels of language and literacy development.
Performance Criterion 4.c.3. Prepare ESOL students to use self- and peer-assessment techniques when appropriate.
Students demonstrate knowledge of the history of ESL teaching. Students keep current with new instructional techniques, research results, advances in the ESL field, and public policy issues. Students use such information to reflect upon and improve their instructional practices. Students provide support and advocate for ESOL students and their families and work collaboratively to improve the learning environment.
OBJECTIVE/Standard 5.a. ESL Research and History. Students demonstrate knowledge of history, research, and current practice in the field of ESL teaching and apply this knowledge to improve teaching and learning.
Performance Criterion 5.a.1. Demonstrate knowledge of language teaching methods in their historical contexts.
Performance Criterion 5.a.2. Demonstrate knowledge of the evolution of laws and policy in the ESL profession.
OBJECTIVE/Standard 5.b. Partnerships and Advocacy. Students serve as professional resources, advocate for ESOL students, and build partnerships with students' families.
Performance Criterion 5.b.1. Advocate and serve as language and education resources for students and families in their schools and communities.
Performance Criterion 5.b.2. Serve as professional resource personnel in their educational communities.
Performance Criterion 5.b.3. Advocate for ESOL students' access to all available academic resources, including instructional technology.
OBJECTIVE/Standard 5.c. Professional Development and Collaboration. Students collaborate with and are prepared to serve as a resource to all staff, including paraprofessionals, to improve learning for all ESOL students.
Performance Criterion 5.c.1. Establish professional goals and pursue opportunities to grow in the field of ESL.
Performance Criterion 5.c.2. Work with other teachers and staff to provide comprehensive, challenging educational opportunities for ESOL students in the school.
Performance Criterion 5.c.3. Engage in collaborative teaching in general education and content-area classrooms.
Performance Criterion 5.c.4. Model academic proficiency in the English language.
The standards themselves are divided into performance indicators. These indicators are to help identify evidence of candidate performance. These performance indicators can be met at three proficiency levels:
Approaches Standard: The documentation provided and the evidence submitted clearly establish that the teacher candidates have knowledge about the subject content, but does not apply it adequately to the classroom.
Meets Standard: The documentation provided and the evidence submitted clearly establish that the teacher candidates demonstrate the dispositions, knowledge, and skills to teach English learners effectively, and that candidates apply that knowledge in the classroom and other professional teaching situations.
Exceeds Standard: The documentation provided and the evidence submitted clearly establish that the teacher candidates consistently demonstrate the dispositions, knowledge, and skills associated with candidates who demonstrate positive effects on student learning and go on to successful teaching. It is expected that teacher candidates who exceed the standards would be good candidates after the required three years of teaching for National Board for Professional Teacher Standards Certification under "English as a New Language."