I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand
To teach is to learn. Japanese Proverb
"Security is mostly a superstition. It does not exist in nature, nor do the children of men as a whole experience it. Avoidance of danger is no safer in the long run than outright exposure. Life is either a daring adventure, or nothing."
- Helen Keller
Computer Security 3 cr. Study of existing hardware and software
techniques for implementing security. Passwords, encryption and
authorization schemes. Special security problems presented by
distributed and network environments. Prereq: CS 304 or CS 407; CS 400
This course will provide an overview of Internet architecture and
cryptographic schemes in the context of network security. Coverage of the
major Internet protocols. Examines denial of service, viruses, worms and
discusses techniques for protection. Covers cryptographic paradigms and
algorithms such as RSA and Diffie-Hellman. Special topics will address the
design and implementation of authentication protocols and existing
standardized security protocols. Explores the security of commonly used
applications like the world wide web, email, ebay and paypal.
People Impact on the Internet
Discusses the key theories, concepts, and themes of the Internet. Examines
and communication technologies from the perspective of the people and
use the Internet to achieve their goals. Topics include: information and
making; human information processing; definition and types of information
behavioral impact of the Internet such as office automation, e-mail, and the
World Wide Web; legal and policy issues such as privacy, censorship,
and information security. A course project will explore the use and impact
of the Internet
in a selected domain (such as e-commerce, education, medicine, government,
enforcement or electronic publishing), focusing on both technical and
1.0 Network Security Overview
1.1 IP Security
1.2 IP Security Overview
1.3 IP Security Architecture
1.4 Authentication Header
1.5 Encapsulating Security Payload
2.0 Security Services Overview
2.1 Security Mechanisms
2.2 A Model for Internetwork Security
3.0 Web Security Overview
3.1 Web Security Requirements
3.2 Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS)
3.3 Secure Electronic Transaction (SET)
4.0 Network Security Administration Overview
4.1 Intrusion Detection
4.2 Password Management
4.3 Recommended Reading and Web Sites
4.4 Internet and Web Resources
5.0 Viruses and Related Threats
5.1 Virus Countermeasures
5.2 Distributed Denial of Service Attacks
Holodeck: with a fundamental use of finding security flaws in application
software. For example, use this software to test commercially available
applications for problems such as buffer overflows.
Take any running application and then run this one until it causes the
application to fail--you don't need the source code, just the executable.
Apply to IE, Windows Explorer, or other such tools.
Superscan ver. 4.
Link at Resources at the top and then Security Tools on the next page displayed
It is a port scanning software/hacking tool, partially published by McAfee.
It detects open TCP and UDP ports on a target computer.
-Superior scanning speed
-Support for unlimited IP ranges
-Improved host detection using multiple ICMP methods
-TCP SYN scanning
-UDP scanning (two methods)
-IP address import supporting ranges and CIDR formats
-Simple HTML report generation
-Source port scanning
-Fast hostname resolving
-Extensive banner grabbing
-Massive built-in port list description database
-IP and port scan order randomization
-A selection of useful tools (ping, traceroute, Whois etc)
-Extensive Windows host enumeration capability"
When the software is executed, an About tab is available, which has brief tutorial/usage guides throughout.
This software would be useful in trying to hack into someone's computer through one of their TCP ports to retreive information.
the bootscreen software:
This software is to hack windows XP to change/customize the bootscreen, the login screen. It can be customized in several ways, such as selecting to use the new Welcome screen. Also, there are a handful of different hacks that will help you customize each screen and make it look even better.
John the Ripper is a password cracking software
is a preventive measure for hacking softwars that might have been
planted to hack in to one's system.
Through this software you can install as many Operating Systems at a time and
they can run as if you have installed a game in your basic Operating System
what you already have on your system. It gives you more flexibility to use
any other Operating System while you already working under one with out
rebooting the system.
For a better idea it is like playing a movie through this software and
the movie is any other Operating System .
This software has loads of useful options you can use.
See for yourself
It is used to recover the windows login password without changing the
password of the system.
If you forget Windows XP or Windows 2000 account password, especially
administrator password which once lost together with user account passwords,
will make you unable to logon and access to Windows desktop, you can use crack
program or crack bootable CD to retrieve and recover the user ids and
passwords, or use third-party services to brute force guessing the password
retrieval, or using workaround trick to reset the password, or some other
methods. Another method to solve the forgotten or lost Windows login account
password problem is by using DreamPackPL which allows users to login to a
password protected Windows and have full access to Windows XP or Win2000
without the need of a valid password or the need to change or replace the
existing (old) password.
DreamPackPL allows any user to bypass Windows login security and logon
to Windows XP or Windows 2000 computer even though the user have forgotten or
lost the valid password, and without the need to reset or modify or change the
existing passwords that are currently set with the accounts. DreamPackPL
(version 2oo4.o6.1o) is actually built on DreamPack which consists only the
hacked and patched sfcfiles.dll, but with graphical user interface (GUI) and
built-in function to create an ISO image that can be burnt to CD. DreamPackPL
v2004.06.10 is available as
THC Hydra and Nmap.
Hydra is a remote authentication service password hacking tool.
It uses a given list of common word or mixing letters to match a user name or
a list of user name.
Before using Hydra, we have to know some details about the victim's
server. For such purpose we found "nmap".
Nmap and zenmap(GUI version) is a port scanner. It gives details about
victim server; ip adddress, port numbers, service types, etc.
SnadBoy's Revelation v2.0
A password decrypted that will allow the user to view any password that has
been stored (remembered) on either the hard drive or server. Once installed
you simply run the program and highlight the hidden password (usually looks
similar to this *******) and the program will show you the decrypted password.
The user must disable all anti-virus software before installing or using the
Wireshark Network Analyzer Purpose:
It is essentially a free packet sniffer that queries your network for information. It allows a user the ability to capture all traffic being passed over the network to a file. It supports multiple computer operating systems, as well as different types of network architectures. In addition, it is an open source application which allows the user to configure Wireshark to their personal specifications.
Wireshark allows the user to delve down into the level of packet detail that they wish to investigate. This is why it is used by hackers, as well as by administrators attempting to prevent individuals from illegally accessing their network. It has several powerful features including:
. Inspection of hundreds of protocols
. Standard three-pane packet browser
. Rich VoIP analysis
. R/W many different capture file formats
. Live data can be read from Ethernet, IEEE 802.11, PPP/HDLC, ATM, Bluetooth, USB, Token Ring, Frame Relay, FDDI, and others (depending on your platfrom)
It is a relatively easy program to use. After installing Wireshark the user can investigate information about IP addresses, DNS servers, users, and other important information. Basically it will provide the user with a TCP/IP dump of everything accessing their network. The user can filter out any information that they do not want to see. If the user is looking for a particular server, or machine they can monitor the network for that resource via its IP address. It is also recommended that you install another application known as WinPcap to hide low-level machines from your filter.
Note: The user must be familiar with reading packet information in order for them to make sense out of the information captured in the file.
Bad Copy Pro recovers "lost, deleted" files on any
media and hard drive, by
any/all of these methods: 1) corrupt files, 2) by original file names and 3)
by file extensions (i.e. JPG, GIF) only, with the filename being renamed
This software program is useful for law enforcement officials looking for child porn on someone's hard drive and for anyone looking to recover "lost, deleted" files.
Internet explorer password recovery and passwords unmask
Internet Explorer Password Recovery and Windows Application Password unmask tool recovers and unmask password for lost or forgotten Email account, News account, online shopping account passwords or similarly any password protected windows application or web forms. Recover all lost password for Email or chat messenger including Yahoo, Gmail, Hotmail, Rediff or other Email account and other similar password protected Windows Screen saver, AutoComplete fields, MS Access database files or administrator password and more.
Data Doctor.s Password unmask software uncover hidden password that are covered by asterisks of any windows application or any password protected text box. Successfully shows the password of any IE or windows application and other similar records and uncovers the password of FTP Client software and ZIP, ACE, RAR, PDF, files password and many more similar records.
Recovers all Internet Explorer lost or forgotten saved passwords.
Uncover hidden passwords of IE or Windows application.
Multilingual password recovery support.
Successfully recovers FTP client password.
Easy and safe to use password recovery utility
Ace Password Sniffer v1.4
Capture passwords through http, ftp, smtp, pop3, telnet. Ace Password
Sniffer is able to listen on your LAN and enable network administrators or parents to capture passwords of any network user. Ace Password
Sniffer can monitor and capture passwords through FTP, POP3, HTTP, SMTP, Telnet, and etc. Ace Password
Sniffer works passively and don't generate any network traffic, therefore, it is very hard to be detected by others. And you needn't install any additional software on other PCs or workstations. If your network is connected through switch, you can run the
sniffer on the gateway or proxy server, which can get all network traffic. This stealth-monitoring utility is useful to recover your network passwords, to receive network passwords of children for parents, and to monitor passwords abuse for server administrators.
Here are some key features of "Ace Password Sniffer":
You can see the passwords as soon as it appeared on LAN.
Support Various Protocols
Fully support application protocols of FTP, SMTP, POP3, TELNET, etc. That means user names and passwords used to send and receive emails, to log on a web site, or to log on a server, can all be captured and saved.
Support HTTP Protocol
Support HTTP protocol, including proxy password, basic http authenticate authoriation and most passwords submitted through HTML, no matter they are encoded by MIME or base64.
Verify whether the captured passwords are valid
It can tell whether the passwords are right. You can even get the replies from the server for the login. And it always keeps trying to get valid user name and password pairs.
(Professional Edition) 2.0
PCSpy Monitor lets you know exactly what a user did on a PC. It does this stealthily so that the user won't know such monitoring exists. Possible usages of PCSpy Monitor include: monitors employees, children, spouse, acquire others' passwords, chat records, websites visited and investigate crimes. PCSpy Monitor records keystrokes, screen snapshots, websites and folders visited, programs run, and chat conversations. It then sends the record to a pre-determined email address. You can also view the record on the monitored computer. PCSpy Monitor can hide itself so that it won't be detected. Such stealth is necessary during a secret investigation.
Logging: Keystrokes typed - Monitor and record all keystrokes typed with time, application name and window caption. Websites visited - Monitor and record all URLs and time. Program executed - Monitor and record all programs including application, executable file, documents and directories navigated with time, operation, application name (application, document, directory names with their file paths). Screen snapshots - Automatically captures screen shots of desktop or active windows at set intervals with time and window caption. PCSpy Monitor actions - Record PCSpy Monitor operations.
Chat logs: Monitor and record all MSN/ICQ/AOL/AIM /YAHOO! Messenger chat conversations with chat time, chat user (the name used to login in a messenger) and message.
Logs view: You can see all logs in "All Records" page with time, log type and log content. You can choose to view different kinds of logs from top bar and it shows total number of recorded logs. You can refresh or delete logs, export picture, create reports in text or HTML file format.
Stealth mode: PCSpy Monitor run absolutely invisibly under Windows systems and does not show in Windows task list. You can also choose to hide PCSpy Monitor icon and its uninstall icon in the start menu.
Net Spy Pro
Net Spy Pro is the latest in employee and student network monitoring software. This program allows you to monitor all user activity on your network in real time from your own workstation.
This program makes it easy to see which users are wasting time at any given moment. Are your employees wasting time online or leaking sensitive data? Do your students visit inappropriate sites?
Quickly view detailed user activity logs or view multiple user screens in real time! Zoom in on problem users and filter activity. With NSP, you can even watch keystrokes as they are typed LIVE!
Who uses Net Spy Pro?
Employers seeking to regain discipline in their employees' Internet activity commonly use Net Spy Pro. Many companies are faced with employees whom waste time online when a supervisor has their back turned. Finding out the TRUTH about what they are doing *and* correcting an employee's bad behavior couldn't be easier.
Teachers needing to regain control of computer usage in their classroom also use Net Spy Pro. See an instant snapshot of all screens in your class to make sure they are working and not surfing the Internet or playing games. View web sites visited and much more. We offer special discount licensing for educational institutions.
Parents needing to ensure safety of their children online are also users of Net Spy Pro. Your children will think twice about doing something naughty online if you tell them you can see everything they do. View the screen in real time, monitor activity, block web sites or applications and do many other useful tasks. Works with any Windows based network, including wireless networks!
Privacy controls for deleting the complete History of your system.
REPORT ON PC MONITORING SOFTWARE-SPYLO:
Spylo PC Monitor is highly flexible security monitoring software used by
parents and business organizations. This software tells you exactly who is
doing what on your computer and at what time. This stealth -monitoring utility
provides you the information about every executed application, every keystroke,
stored password, established internet connection and takes a screen shots of
these events. Program logs are extremely compact - screen shots are JPG
compressed, time and monitor is invisible to user - it is not shown by
Alt+Tab or in system tray.
-Completely invisible to user
-Very user friendly events browser interface
-Customizable events logging time slices
-Eats very small amount of CPU power
-JPG screen shots
-Uncovers encrypted passwords
-Password protected logs access
-Very compact logs
PC compatible with 300MHz or faster processor
Platforms Microsoft ® Windows 95,98,NT,2000,XP
5MB Free Hard Drive space
Radmin 3 Overview:
Radmin (Remote Administrator) is fast and secure remote control and remote
access software that enables you to work on a remote computer as if you were
sitting right in front of it and access it from multiple places. Radmin
includes full support for Windows Vista (32-bit and 64-bit), file transfer,
multi-user text and voice chats, Windows security, Kerberos authentication,
256-bit AES encryption for all data streams, telnet access, multiple monitors
support and unique DirectScreenTransfer. technology. Radmin utilizes the
ever-present TCP/IP protocol - the most widespread protocol used in LANs,
WANs and the Internet. This means you can access your remote computer from
anywhere in the world. Radmin is deployed on thousands of corporate PCs
worldwide. Among our clients are companies where Radmin is the standard
application for network management.
The software can be downloaded from http://www.radmin.com/download/index.php
-Full compatibility with Windows Vista 32-bit and 64-bit
-Highest Speed of Work
-Highest Security Level
-Multi-user Text and Voice Chat
-Multiple monitors support
-File Transfer with "Delta Copy" feature
-Low System Requirements
-Multiple Connections Support
-Free Technical Support
Some other hacking tools:
Password Vulnerability Advanced NT Security Explorer
Swordfish Cyberspace is a world protected by firewalls, passwords and the most
advanced security systems. In this world we hide our deepest secrets, our
most incriminating information, and of course, a whole lot of money. This is
the world of Swordfish. Gabriel Shear, a charismatic and dangerous spy, needs
to get inside this world. If he can get in, billions in illegal government
funds wait for the taking. To actually steal the money, however, he'll need
the help of Stanley Jobson, a former superhacker who's now desperate and
penniless. Stanley has been forbidden to get within 50 yards of the nearest
electronics store after doing time for wreaking havoc on the FBI's
controversial high-tech cyber surveillance operations. Gabriel and his
beautiful partner Ginger lure Stanley into their clandestine world, baiting
him with the things he can't have - a chance to reunite with Holly, the
daughter he lost during a bitter divorce battle and the opportunity to start
a new life.
Enemy of the State:
The movie shows that technology could take away your privacy so
easily and also render your life much more efficient. It could do it without
you being around or you noticing it. Although some technologies in the movie
have not been created yet, they are likely to happen in the near future.
Fida Actors: Fardeen Khan, Kareena Kapoor, Shahid Kapur.
The central theme of the movie Fida is internet bank hacking The story
begins with the police and the underworld stalking a hacker who has
transferred huge amounts of money from the bank account of an underworld
don, sitting in one the cyber café in the city.
Police tracks the IP Address from which the bank robbery was carried out
and eventually reach to that cyber café and keep an eye on that café for
another almost 3 months hoping that the person will come there again for
some reasons which I feel is fantasy rather than reality because no one
will go to the same café again where he actually performed a big cyber
crime. But the main criminal (vikram) who actually did this robbery makes
Jai own up to the hacking that was done from the bank account of the
underworld don. Jai agrees to take it to his name because of some personal
How did jai own this hacking was interesting? He go to the same cyber café again, and access the same website which the original culprit accessed when he robbed. As soon as he hit that website and use the login id and password, the undercover police personal rushed to his cabin and arrest him.
I would have expected a far more thorough exploration into the central
theme talking about passwords/security/firewalls etc in simple non-technical
terms. But it was no that much which I expected. But in this movie, it showed
how the Cyber Police catches the criminals while they using computer from a
particular station by tracking the ip addresses and other things. (by Abdul M)
Bicentennial man This movie is about a robot search for humanity he wants to be human.
This is a thought provoking and touching drama in a highly entertaining manner.
This film tells us the beautifully portrayed relationships delve deep into what makes humans human.
Related to Hacking "23":
The movie.s plot is based on the true story of a group of young computer
hackers from Hannover, Germany. In the late 1980s the orphaned Karl Koch
invests his heritage in a flat and a home computer. At first he dials up to
bulletin boards to discuss conspiracy theories inspired by his favorite novel,
R.A. Wilson.s .Illuminatus., but soon he and his friend David start breaking
into government and military computers. Pepe, one of Karl.s rather criminal
acquaintances senses that there is money in computer cracking - he travels to
east Berlin and tries to contact the KGB.
Although it is not related to the computer security directly, it seems like it could influence somebody to break a code represented by some mathematical numbers or digits. I can also put this movie in the category of Science Fiction.
The movie is about the strong and beautiful quest of one person in search of the truth, the answer to the universe. In this particular case, Max(the main character), acquires a deep grasp of number theory. With his assumptions, that mathematics is the universal language, that number theory can represent everything in nature, and that there is a pattern in everything that occurs in this universe, he sets about trying to find it in the stock market.
After him are people who are interested in his stock market analyses for monetary purposes, and more strangely, a group of Rabbis who are convinced the same pattern of numbers is the key to their goal. However, Max is the only one who can understand the semantics of the 216 digit number that is the key to the universal lock. In the end, Max succeeds on his quest, but what he understands is never revealed to us.
According to the Max.s assumption everything in this universe is some how related to the mathematics and the movie shows some of the examples to prove that, for example, the patterns in spiral, patterns in sunflower is represented by the Fibonacci sequence..PI. is used to compute many mathematical problems involving area and circumference of circle, volume of cube, cone, cylinder etc. This is the reality I found in the movie. But his quest about everything in this universe is related to the number could be the fantasy.
But this movie could inspire anyone to be deterministic, stick on truth and keep trying to get the result.
This movie is about Max Cohen. Max, a number theorist, believes that everything in nature can be understood through numbers, and that if you graph the numbers correctly patterns will emerge. He is working on finding patterns within the stock market. He searches for patterns using his homemade supercomputer, Euclid.
Max begins making stock market predictions based on Euclid's calculations. In the middle of printing out the daily picks, Euclid suddenly crashes, but first produces a 216-digit number. The next morning, Max finds out that the few picks Euclid made before crashing were accurate.
Lenny Meyer does mathematical research on the Torah. He teaches Max about simple Gematria and explains how some people believe that the Torah is a string of numbers that form a code sent by God.
Max becomes interested when he realizes that some of the number concepts Lenny knows about are similar to real mathematical theories. Lenny also mentions that he is searching for a 216-digit number that is repeated throughout the text of the Torah.
Max begins to pursue this theory as well. Utilizing a new computer chip, Max has Euclid analyze mathematical patterns in the Torah. Euclid crashes again, but once again spits out the 216-digit number.
That is when the movie started getting weirder. After the second crash Max appears to become somewhat psychic and is able to visualize the stock-market patterns he had been searching for.
Later after he almost causing the stock market to crash, he is driven to madness. Or perhaps he only experienced a major stroke. The movie leaves you wondering about that.
Deja Vu, Minority Report: Even though I personaly don't believe that
the technology such as time machine could be created, the movies do show a
good point of who could be controlling the system, no one. (by Tawat)
Firewall catches the biggest weakness of any security systems. Even how
good the entire security system is, it still needs people (Harrison Ford) to run and maintain. The movie shows that criminals don't have to break the system by themselves. They could just convince a security administrator to do it form them.
Body Of Lies
In this movie they showed how any innocent person can be set by someone as a terrorist or a criminal.By hacking in to anyone's personal information and misusing it can lead to so worse results.A very innocent person can sometimes get a criminal and terrorist image and for no fault of him,he have to face the deadly consequences set by someone else who misused his personal information.
Another thing shown was how easy it is for the higher officials ;-) to intrude in to any ones personal life and destroy their privacy.Lot of security issues have been depicted in this movie.
"All you should know about the story going in is that DiCaprio plays Roger
Ferris, a CIA field agent in an important position in the middle east division,
just below the leader of the division Ed Hoffman (played by Russell Crowe),
a snarky, racist, and mostly unlikeable man who leads the missions remotely
through his laptop and cellphone. Ferris uncovers a lead on a major terrorist
leader potentially operating out of Jordan, and chooses to act on it, involving
Jordanian intelligence leader Hani Salam, played brilliantly by Mark Strong." -
Disgruntle employees cheat their workplace by hacking into the system.
National Treasure I and II
A nice historical plot of coding and cryptography mingled with Lincoln's
Three Days of the Condor: with Robert Redford is one of the better
telecommunications hacking movies out there.
The Anderson Tapes
Enemy of the State
The Matrix: If we can answer the question of how life form can be created from chemical element, the matrix world might be possible.
Live Free or Die Hard
Live Free or Die Hard: Security 101, don.t put your important files in one place. In the movie, it takes about 10 criminals to ruin the whole country, but the irony is the whole country is saved by about the same man power.
It is .possible. to hack anything.
This movie stars Sandra Bullok.
She is a software/computer specialist, who interacts with other software consultants. She receives a disk with a virus on it, from one of those consultants. When she puts the disk into her computer, she finds that it allows her access to a database of information. It turns out that the disk has important information on it which would allow her access to some crucial information regarding the death of the Secretary of Defense.
A software company created a security software called .gatekeeper. which many companies adopt as their computer security software, including many governmental agencies. This same software company was not supported by the former Secretary of Defense. A scandal regarding the SoD.s infection of HIV/AIDS led the SoD to believe he was infected and then he committed suicide. Sandra had found proof that his medical records were falsified by the same company who created .gatekeeper.; he, in fact, didn.t have HIV/AIDS.
Throughout several attempts of secret agents (they worked for the same company who created the gatekeeper software) trying to kill Sandra, she continually escapes. All the while, her identity has been changed to a criminal status, and her identity is completely changed in a few days time. With nobody to go to, she has to figure out how to get her identity back and survive the many assassination attempts on her life.
The movie touches on the fact that one.s information is very private, and keeping that privacy doesn.t exist with the use of a computer and the internet. Chat rooms, airport systems, the stock market, and even medical records could be falsified, wreaking havoc on any ordinary citizen of the USA. The use of computers throughout the movie is minimal, but there were some technical scenes where Sandra uses telnet and IP Subnet masking to locate an identity from an IP address, which was very cool.
All in all, the movie definitely has lots of information regarding
computer security and how it affects our identities. I would recommend this
movie for anyone interested in multiple scenes of the good old 3 ¼ inch
floppy disks in climax moments! (by Ivan)
Pirates of Silicon Valley: Steve Jobs versus Bill Gates - a classic movie
about two hobbyists that have made billions of duping computer users in
thinking that running Windows and owning an Iphone.. Wouldn't you call that
hacking the world.. ;)
The Thirteenth Floor
Italian Job remake - 'Napster' scenes
Revolution OS - doc on Linux Operating System
Disclosure - 'a friend' scenes
One Point Oh
Close Encounters of the Third Kind
The Terminator - Skynet
Firewall - Harrison Ford
Colossus: Forbin Project
2001 Space Odyssey - Hal9000
Logan's Run - once one hits age of 33, terminated (hence, 'termination
list at companies)
Desk Set - Trace and Hepburn comedy
The Omega Man
The Andromeda Strain
X-Files: Kill Switch (Episode 11, Season 5 )
Bicentennial Man - Robin Williams
Johnny Neumonic - Keanu Reeves best role
THX 1138 - George Lucas b4 Star Wars
Runaway - Tom Selleck/Gene Simmons
AI - Stanley Kubrick's last movie
A Clockwork Orange
Date: July 8, 2008 Delete
To: Faculty and Staff
Subject: Malicious software warning
Some people have experienced a popup in their Internet browser that claims your computer is infected and offers to install a Windows XP Antispyware program. When you click on the popup, it will disable your computer or be otherwise malicious. NEIU computers should all have installed Windows Defender (antispyware) and Symantec Antivirus and do not need additional antispyware or antivirus protection. Be very suspicious of any software downloaded from the Internet (particularly if you don?t know the source and/or purpose).
We also continue to get NEIU-directed phishing e-mail attacks. Please never give your password to anyone. NEIU University Computing will never ask for your password.
If you do not have Windows Defender or Symantec Antivirus, please contact the technology help desk (email@example.com or x4357).
Posted by Kim W. Tracy, Exec. Dir. of University Computing Services