I. Projective Methods

Based on the 'projective hypothesis"
This holds that an individual puts structure on an ambiguous situation in a way that is consistent with their own conscious & unconscious needs.

Is an indirect method- testee is talking about something other than him/her self.

II. Inkblots: The Rorschach - Hermann Rorschach

inkblots used by others before Rorschach
10 bilaterally symmetrical - mirror image inkblots (5= B&W; 2= B&W&R; 3=multicolored)

Administration = 3 rounds - open-ended, inquiry, testing-the-limits
Scoring = content + location + latency to first response + determinants , popularity, form quality , Organizational Ability

Reliability= hard to determine -split-half no good-nor test-retest- only one = inter- scorer (look at scoring (good) & at interpretation of scores (no so good)
Led to Criteria for interpretation - Thought Disorder Index

Validity= holds up for convergent validity but not discriminative or predictive
Needs to be treated as a structured interview & interpreted by an experienced clinician

Exner's system
Until him Beck & Klopfer (+ 3 others) were the biggies hated each other - Exner studied with both. Beck & Klopfer - wanted to create a system that would use the best of all five - "Comprehensive System" - has norms

Use with children=mixed results

III. Pictures: Thematic Apperception Test - Morgan & Murray
apperception from apperceive = to perceive in terms of past experience
originally used to herlp patients in analysis fantasize
30 pictures + 1 blank - use 20 some are male, some female, some child, some all

Testee gives story - beginning middle end - describes what people are feeling

Scoring - based on Henry Murray's personality thery- (same as EPPS) - looking at "need" "press" and "thema"--assume person identifies with protagonist

Reliability - inter-scorer -good but dioesn't extend to interpretation

Interpretation based on stories, testee behavior while telling


IV. Pictures: Other Picture Tests

APT - Apperceptive Personality Test - attempt to address shortcomings of TAT and have objective scoring

V. Words: Word Association Tests

Galton - first to use it
Use not only content but reaction time
Jung - words that represented potential areas of conflict - led to:

Word Associastion Test (Rappaport. Gill & Shafer) - 60 words- some neutral some traumatic

Kent-Rosanoff Free Association Test
VI. Words: Sentence Completion
Consist of stems - general or specific - theory based or not

Washington University Sentence Completion Test

Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank
VII. Figure Drawings
difficulties with establishment of psychomeric properties - since hard to do
reliability, can't do validity
have not been shown to represent self - but- do represent bodily concerns
are affected by artistic abiity of examinee
more expert clinicians - not necessarily better judges

Draw-A-Person Test (Karen Machover)

House-Tree-Person Test (Buck) Draw-An-Animal

Kinetic Family Drawing (KFD)

VIII. CLOSE-UP: Draw-A-Person Screening Pocedure for Emotional Disturbance (DAP- SPED) - Naglieri et al

Based on idea that drawing unusual features in drawings signals emotional problems. - used just to indicate need for further exploration


Their Assumptions Situational Variables
  Psychometric Considerations

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