Department of Earth Science |Northeastern Illinois University

INTRODUCTION TO GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
ESCI 340
Spring, 2007


Citation Format for the Geotechnical Project                                                       Sanders

AVOIDING PLAGIARISM: You must CITE THE SOURCE of any information you use that is not from your own brain.  If you don't cite the source, you are committing plagiarism, or academic dishonesty.  Please read the NEIU policy on academic integrity.  A site from the University of Indiana explains and gives examples of plagiarism and provides helpful tips on how to avoid it.

In your geotechnical report, use the citation format that our textbook uses.  Look in the list of references at the end of the textbook.  Hundreds of citations appear here; somewhere in all those citations, you probably will be able to find one that fits your situation.

To use the format, look very carefully at every aspect of the bibliography entry.  Some of these are very subtle!  Here are examples of some things to watch for:

SPACING and INDENTATION: The first line of each entry is not indented, but all of the subsequent lines are.  In your paper, single-space each entry.  Leave a blank line between entries.

AUTHORS' NAMES: Are they capitalized, or lower case?  How are they punctuated?  Are they listed with last name first, or last name last?  Is the first name given at all, or are there initials instead?  How about second authors--are they listed last name first, or last name last?  Initials?  What is the punctuation mark, if any, between authors' names?  What is the punctuation mark, if any, at the end of the list of authors' names?

PUBLICATION DATE:  Does it include the month and day, or just the year?  How is it punctuated, if at all?  Is it in parentheses, or not?  If so, do punctuation marks appear inside or outside the parentheses?

TITLES:  Are you working with a book journal article, government document, map, or website?  Be sure to find an example in the bibliography that matches the situation you are working with.

Then, look at the following aspects of the title:  Is it italicized?  In quotation marks?  In capital letters?  How is it punctuated--that is, what punctuation mark appears at the end of the title?

Is this a journal article?  If so, how do the punctuation and format of the article title differ from that of the journal, and what is the punctuation between the two titles?  How are the volume and number given?

Is this a government document?  If so, how does the format of the document title differ from the title of the document series?  How are the series numbers given?

PLACE OF PUBLICATION: In what cases is the place of publication given?  Are both city and state given?  How are they punctuated?

PAGE NUMBERS:  Are page numbers given?  If so, in what cases (journal article?  book?  map?  document?)  When page numbers are given, what page numbers are they?  For example, if a book, is the total length of the book given?  If a journal, are the page numbers the pages on which the article appears?

WEBSITES:  If you are citing a website, please give the following information:  Author's name (in some cases this will be an agency or other organization), the year you accessed the site, title of the web page, and URL (the web address), and then the date you accessed the site.

Department of Earth Science | Northeastern Illinois University

© 2007 Laura L. Sanders.  Last updated April 5, 2007.