Department of Earth Science |Northeastern
exam will be open book, open notes.
Review for Exam #1
the exam, you should be able
to do the following:
v Write the full names of at least two of your
v Describe the
purpose and function of a rain barrel, and make quantitative calculations to
estimate how a rain barrel is involved in the water budget of a residential
property in Chicago. Information appears in
this PowerPoint presentation (5.2MB).
v Work in a team to complete this
assignment: collect all the information you
need and make all the calculations required to answer questions on the slides with white backgrounds
(see the homework page for more info).
It's been a long break; do
you remember everything you learned last semester? Maybe you haven't taken
an Earth Science course in quite awhile. Everyone comes to this course
with a different level of understanding and experience. To help bring us
all to a common level of understanding, in a group, review
"What you should
bring to this course".
Use concepts of length,
area, volume, and flow rate to quantify hydrologic variables.
Solve a hydrologic problem in a sequence of logical steps, using reasonable
units, significant figures, and dimensional analysis.
If there are differences between calculations by different groups of researchers, what accounts for
Problem-solving: See "Hints
for Solving Quantitative Problems".
Use units of measurement to
help solve problems.
Significant figures: What is the appropriate number to
Consider these questions:
Describe in words what makes water flow. Using simple sketches, show how
water would flow from one container (like a rain barrel) into another if they
were connected by hoses. Explain what would make water flow from one portion of
a saturated porous medium (e.g. sand with water in it) to another portion of the
- If the rain falls
at a rate of 1 inch per hour, how long would it take to fill a rain barrel?
- How heavy would a
full rain barrel be?
- How big are the differences between answers? How much difference
indicates "the same amount", and how much difference indicates a "real"
Explorations: Investigate, discover, and
articulate the general principles that describe the movement of water and the
factors that drive it. Use simple lab set-ups to
investigate the movement of water through open conduits and through porous
(Click here for an MSWord
copy of the instructions.)
v Present the results of
these explorations. Identify any areas that need
further investigation. Give special consideration to lab technique with
regard to timing flow.
- Bucket-to-Bucket Transfer
- Holey Water Bottle
- Draining Work
- Capillary Action
v Give your
Homework #2 presentation. Explain how you will be graded on your
presentation.Evaluate your colleagues' presentations
using the rubric we developed
v Review what we
learned in Infiltration Observation and Capillary Action.
Describe the relationship
between capillary rise and pore diameter.
Explain the experimental results we got for our
Darcy Discovery measurements
of flow rates through different sediment samples. What were the
experimental variables we kept constant for all the experiments? How would
varying them affect the results?
Using simple sketches, show
would flow from one container (like a rain barrel) into another if they were
connected by hoses.
Define and draw a diagram illustrating the following terms:
water table capillary fringe
saturated zone tension-saturated zone
phreatic zone vadose zone.
v If you are
interested (not on the exam):
For further reading on hysteresis, see these links:
Link 2 .
v Using the ground
water model ("sand tank"), inject colored dye and keep track of its flow over
time. Observe the flow paths created by all the dye inputs. What
makes water flow? Explain the results we got last time with our experiment
using the ground water model ("sand tank"). Observe the flow paths created
by all the dye inputs.
What makes water flow?
Hydraulic Properties of Rocks and
Define and describe how one can measure
the following properties:
effective porosity (ne)
specific yield (Sy ) specific retention (Sr )
permeability (Ki )
hydraulic conductivity (K) We did not get to
these--will do next time!
Explain the relationship between
specific yield, specific retention, and porosity.
Explain the relationship between
porosity and effective porosity.
Tell in what units of measurement
each of these properties is expressed.
v Give typical ranges of each of
these hydraulic properties for various types of sediments, and explain any
trends in the ranges.
Department of Earth Science | Northeastern Illinois University
© 2009 Laura L. Sanders.
Last updated February 17, 2009.