Department of Earth Science |Northeastern Illinois University

INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCE
ESCI 121
Spring 2007

Review for Exam #3
(April 4, 2007)                                                                        Dr. Sanders

After the first draft was published, a few more items were added in the topographic maps section.

On the exam, you should be able to do the following:

Earthquakes, Tsunamis, and Plate Tectonics

* Define earthquake

* Tell how earthquakes are measured using seismographs.

* Sketch a diagram illustrating the meaning of the terms epicenter and focus (also called hypocenter) as they apply to earthquakes.

* Describe P-waves and S-waves: their motion, velocity, arrival times, and ability to travel through liquids.

* Explain why P- and S-waves reach seismometers at different times, and tell how the time difference helps us learn how far away an earthquake occurred.

* Tell why it is necessary to have seismograms for an earthquake from at least three different locations before we can locate an earthquake epicenter.

* Examining seismograms from three monitoring stations, for each monitoring station, calculate the P-S time difference, find the distance of the epicenter from the station, and plot the distances on a map to locate the epicenter.

* Using the information from the seismographs and maps, plot the position of a tsunami wave at various times as it moves outward from the epicenter.

* Using earthquake focus maps such as those produced by students in Homework #4, analyze the patterns of earthquake epicenters that occur in various locations.

* In terms of depth of focus and pattern of distribution of earthquakes, describe what would be expected in the following environments: divergent boundaries, transform boundaries, convergent boundaries with subduction, convergent boundaries with no subduction, hot spots.

* Examine an earthquake focus map and form a reasonable hypothesis as to the plate tectonic environment.

Campus Field Trip

* Visiting several sites on the NEIU campus, describe the use of geologic materials in architecture and landscaping.

Topographic Maps

* Maps:  List the common elements that should appear on any map, and explain how to use and/or interpret them.
scale               north arrow               coordinate system               key/legend               title

* Explain how to use Earth's grid system (latitude and longitude), including knowing the difference between north (+) and south (-) latitude, east (+) and west (-) longitude, use of degrees, minutes, and seconds, where zero latitude and zero longitude are, and what the highest latitudes and longitudes are.  (See p. 684-5 in your textbook.)

* Cogently explain the meaning and importance of the following:

topographic map    contour interval         contour  line

* Using a topographic map, locate higher and lower elevations.

* Interpret the spacing of contour lines and tell how it relates to steepness of a slope.

* Interpret major features such as bodies of water, urban areas, buildings, roadways, and so on.

* Construct a "playdough" model of a landform, and then draw a map to illustrate the landform.

* Using a map someone else has drawn, create a landform that fits what the map illustrates.

* Use contours to determine which direction a stream is flowing, even if the contours are not labeled.

* Use latitude and longitude to locate a point on a topographic map; starting with a point on a map, determine the latitude and longitude.

* Complette a worksheet that asks you to examine several different topographic maps and interpret different features on them.

Department of Earth Science | Northeastern Illinois University

© 2007 Laura L. Sanders.  Last updated April 3, 2007.