of Earth Science |Northeastern
TO EARTH SCIENCE
Review for Exam
For Exam #2, you should be able to do the
Common Sedimentary Rock-Forming Minerals
* Examine and
describe the properties of each mineral sample in the following groups,
and determine what each group
has in common. Finally, assign a name to each mineral using a
mineral key. First
7, 17, 19, 20, 40,
Group: 2, 18, 30, 46
Third Group: 14, 33, 34, 44
* Using the list of common sedimentary rock-forming minerals that
appears above (you should have assigned names to each of the numbered
specimens listed above), tell how each is likely to play a part in
forming a sedimentary rock.
give examples of, and explain the importance of each of the following
processes in forming sediments and sedimentary rocks:
mechanical (physical) weathering
detrital (clastic) sediments
* List the four main processes that transport sediment.
* Using the sedimentary rock key in your textbook on p. 63, examine,
describe, classify, and name a variety of hand samples of sedimentary
rocks. Please note: on the key, you may delete/ignore the
rocks: breccia, siltstone, and travertine. Also, please
substitute the word "clay" for "mud" on the detrital rocks side.
Samples we looked at in class were the following: #103,
104, 109, 113, 118, 128, 129, 135, 145, 151, 153, 158
* Explain how detrital
(clastic) sedimentary rocks form, list names of rocks of this group,
and give the grain size of sediments that make up each rock. Tell
how you might recognize each of these rocks when you see it again.
* Explain how chemical sedimentary rocks form, list a few names of
rocks of this group, and tell what minerals make up
each rock. Tell how
you might recognize each of the rocks when you see them again.
Igneous Rock-Forming Minerals
* Examine and
describe the properties of each mineral sample listed below.
Assign a name to each mineral using a
mineral key. Check
back later for some mineral numbers.
* Sketch a melting
curve on a graph with axes showing temperature and
pressure. Show on which sides of the curve liquids and solids
* Use the
melting curve you sketched to illustrate the three processes
that lead to melting of rock material:
- thermal melting
- decompression melting
- shifting the position of the melting
curve by introducing volatiles (i.e.,
* On the
graph, sketch another curve, for a rock material that melts at a higher
temperature. Label the two curves to show which one
illustrates melting of silica-rich material, and which one
illustrates melting of silica-poor material.
* Describe the three general settings in which volcanoes are found in
the world, and for each, use the melting curve to explain how/why magma
forms in that setting:
- divergent plate boundaries
- subduction zones
- hot spots
* Explain the relationship between cooling rate and
* Using the hand samples of igneous rocks in a rock box, tell
which of them cooled relatively slowly, quickly, or instantaneously.
* Explain the
difference between rocks of a granitic (felsic)
composition and those of basaltic (mafic)
composition, and show how to recognize each type in a hand sample.
* Describe the unique characteristics, including crystal size,
composition, and cooling rate, of each of the following igneous
* Describe the
three main shapes/profiles of volcanoes, and explain why they are
different and how each is related to the volcano's eruptive style.
* Describe and
explain the connections between a volcano's location and plate tectonic
setting, types of tectonic plates involved, mineralogic composition of
the magma (felsic, mafic, intermediate), volcano shape/profile (cinder
cone/dome, composite cone/stratovolcano, shield), volcano
style, silica content of the magma, melting temperature of the rock
material (higher/lower), and the material erupted from the volcano
the composition of continental and oceanic plates in terms of felsic /
three agents of metamorphism (heat, pressure. and chemically active
fluids) and explain the changes they can bring about in a rock.
* Describe the plate tectonic settings in which metamorphic rocks form.
* Explain what foliation
is, tell what causes it, and give examples of three foliated
* Describe and give the names of three non-foliated metamorphic rocks.
* Sketch a diagram illustrating how rocks of each of the three major
classes can be altered by Earth processes to form new rocks. On
diagram, be sure to distinguish between materials and processes. Put boxes around
the materials, and show the processes with arrows.
* Explain the rock cycle.
© 2007 Laura L. Sanders. Last updated
February 23, 2007.