of Earth Science |Northeastern
INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCE
Review Sheet for Exam #2 (March 16, 2006)
For Exam #2, you should be able to do the
* Explain the relationship between cooling rate and crystal size.
* Define and describe what is meant by the terms plutonic and
volcanic as they apply to igneous rocks.
* Define and describe what is meant by the terms intrusive and
extrusive as they apply to igneous rocks.
* Define and describe what is meant by mafic and felsic
mineralogic compositions of igneous rocks.
* Use a rock key to identify hand samples of igneous rocks.
* Describe the three major types of material that erupt from
volcanoes: 1) lava, 2) pyroclastics, and 3) gas.
* Explain how the magma composition affects the "eruptive style" of a
volcano, and how this is related to plate tectonic setting.
* Explain the four factors that control melting of rocks in various
settings, and say how each influences whether or not magma will be
--shifting of the melting curve due to introduction of water (volatiles)
* List the major types of volcanoes and explain the plate tectonic
settings in which they form.
* Explain what changes take place in rocks during metamorphism as a
result of increased heat and pressure.
* Define foliation and explain
how it develops in rocks composed of platy minerals.
* Examining hand samples of metamorphic rocks, identify those
exhibiting foliation and those that are non-foliated.
* Describe how each of the three major classes of rocks forms.
* For each of the major classes of rocks, name the sub-groups, and tell
how each forms. List the rocks that fall into each of the
* Explain how in the field you could recognize each of the rocks listed
above. What features do they exhibit?
* Explain the relationship between the environments of rock formation
and plate tectonic setting.
* Explain how rocks of one type can be changed into rocks of another
* Explain the meaning of the terms epicenter
and focus (also called
hypocenter) of an earthquake.
* Explain the meaning of the term magnitude
as it applies to earthquakes.
* Explain how we measure the magnitude
of an earthquake using the Richter scale.
* Explain how we classify the intensity
of an earthquake using the Mercalli scale.
* Explain the relationship between the depth and distribution of
earthquake focuses (foci) and plate tectonic settings.
* Explain how a seismograph works.
* Explain what P-waves and S-waves are, and how they move
through solid and
liquid material in the earth.
* Explain why it is necessary to have data from at least three
seismometers to pinpoint the epicenter of an earthquake.
* Using data on arrival times of P and S waves for four seismometers,
locate the epicenter of an earthquake.
© 2006 Laura L. Sanders. Last updated
March 13, 2006.