of Earth Science |Northeastern
INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCE
Review Sheet for Exam #1 (February 9, 2006)
For Exam #1, you should be able to do the
* Use the map of the sea floor to plot the occurrences of
various fossil organisms, propose hypotheses to explain their
distribution, and suggest types of evidence that could be used to
support or disprove those hypotheses.
* Read world maps that illustrate various geologic features:
hot spots, volcanoes, crustal thickness, depth of earthquake focus, and
location of volcanoes. Compile information from the maps to
discern patterns, and explain the patterns by using plate tectonics
* List the three different types of plate boundaries, and tell
what their direction of relative plate motion is.
* Describe the differences between plates made of continental
lithosphere, and plates made of oceanic lithosphere.
* For each of the three different types of plate boundaries,
describe the geologic features that you would find at each type (hot
spots, volcanoes, crustal thickness, depth of earthquake focus?)
* Complete the sentence, "Most rocks are made of _________."
* List the three major
groups of rocks and briefly explain how each type forms.
* For each of the three major groups of rocks, give a few plate tectonic settings in which
one might find that type of rock forming.
* Explain what a mineral
is, listing the characteristics that all minerals share.
* Use simple laboratory tools (dissecting needle, copper
penny, hand lens, scratch plate, streak plate) to investigate the
properties of minerals.
* Describe what is meant by the following terms used to
describe mineral properties:
pattern (fracture, cleavage)
* List and describe the three major kinds of particles in an
* Use a periodic table of the elements to determine how many
protons are in any given atom.
* Tell what an ion is,
and using the concept of how electrons fill "shells" or energy
levels, explain why some atoms have a tendency to form ions.
* Tell which column in the periodic table has those elements
whose electron "shells" (energy levels) are full in their most common
* Explain why some atoms tend to join together (bond) to form
compounds. Give an example.
* Explain what weathering is, and tell what the products of
* Explain the difference between mechanical and chemical
weathering, and list several examples of processes that lead to
* Describe the two major types of sedimentary rocks.
* List typical environments of deposition of sediments, and tell
what type of sediments are likely to deposit in each.
* Use a mineral identification key to identify hand samples of
common sedimentary and igneous rock-forming minerals.
* Use simple laboratory tools to investigate the
characteristics of sedimentary and igneous rocks, and use a rock key to
identify hand samples.
© 2006 Laura L. Sanders. Last updated
February 7, 2006.