Department of Earth Science |Northeastern Illinois University

INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCE
ESCI 121
Spring 2006

Review Sheet for Exam #1  (February 9, 2006)                                                                    Dr. Sanders

For Exam #1, you should be able to do the following:

*  Use the map of the sea floor to plot the occurrences of various fossil organisms, propose hypotheses to explain their distribution, and suggest types of evidence that could be used to support or disprove those hypotheses.

*  Read world maps that illustrate various geologic features: hot spots, volcanoes, crustal thickness, depth of earthquake focus, and location of volcanoes.  Compile information from the maps to discern patterns, and explain the patterns by using plate tectonics concepts.

*  List the three different types of plate boundaries, and tell what their direction of relative plate motion is.

*  Describe the differences between plates made of continental lithosphere, and plates made of oceanic lithosphere. 

*  For each of the three different types of plate boundaries, describe the geologic features that you would find at each type (hot spots, volcanoes, crustal thickness, depth of earthquake focus?)

*  Complete the sentence, "Most rocks are made of _________."

*  List the three major groups of rocks and briefly explain how each type forms.

*  For each of the three major groups of rocks, give a few plate tectonic settings in which one might find that type of rock forming.

*  Explain what a mineral is, listing the characteristics that all minerals share. 

*  Use simple laboratory tools (dissecting needle, copper penny, hand lens, scratch plate, streak plate) to investigate the properties of minerals.

*  Describe what is meant by the following terms used to describe mineral properties
        hardness                   luster                streak            color
        specific gravity          solubility           breakage pattern (fracture, cleavage)   

*  List and describe the three major kinds of particles in an atom.

*  Use a periodic table of the elements to determine how many protons are in any given atom.

*  Tell what an ion is, and using the concept of how electrons fill "shells" or energy levels, explain why some atoms have a tendency to form ions.

*  Tell which column in the periodic table has those elements whose electron "shells" (energy levels) are full in their most common state.

*  Explain why some atoms tend to join together (bond) to form compounds.  Give an example.

*  Explain what weathering is, and tell what the products of weathering are.

*  Explain the difference between mechanical and chemical weathering, and list several examples of processes that lead to mechanical weathering.

*  Describe the two major types of sedimentary rocks.

*  List typical environments of deposition of sediments, and tell what type of sediments are likely to deposit in each.

*  Use a mineral identification key to identify hand samples of common sedimentary and igneous rock-forming minerals.

*  Use simple laboratory tools to investigate the characteristics of sedimentary and igneous rocks, and use a rock key to identify hand samples.

Department of Earth Science | Northeastern Illinois University

© 2006 Laura L. Sanders.  Last updated February 7, 2006.