Department of Earth Science |Northeastern Illinois University

INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCE
ESCI 121


Review for Exam #1 (September 19, 2006)                                                                        Dr. Sanders

For Exam #1, you should be able to do the following:

* List the steps in the scientific method.

* Sketch two diagrams illustrating the interior structure of the earth.  In the first diagram, show and label the different layers as defined by their density and composition. In the second diagram, show and label the different layers as defined by their deformation properties.  (For help, see p. 15-16 in your textbook.)

*  Describe the lithosphere and asthenosphere, sketch a diagram showing the internal structure of the earth and show where they occur, and explain how they differ in terms of their temperature and rigidity.

List the two types of lithosphere (oceanic lithosphere and continental lithosphere) and describe how they differ in terms of their thickness and density.

*  Locate the following places on a map of the world:  Japan, Hawaii, Los Angeles California, Yellowstone National Park, the India/Tibet border (northernmost), New Zealand, Iceland, the Red Sea, lake Tanganyika, the Aleutian Islands, Chile, Jakarta (Indonesia), the Azore Islands, and the Galapagos Islands.  Note: you are not required to memorize where these places are located on a globe.  They are listed here simply as an aid to your studying.   On a test, if you needed to find a location on a map, I would point it out to you.)

*  Read world maps that illustrate various geologic features: hot spots, crustal thickness, depth of earthquake focus, locations of volcanoes, geographic features, and plate boundaries.  Download the handout we used (MSWord format) by clicking here.

*  Compile information from the maps to discern patterns.  Download the handout we used (MSWord format) by clicking here.

A web version of this exercise can be found here.

*  Using a map illustrating plate tectonic boundaries, identify locations where boundaries occur, and tell what type of boundaries they are (divergent, convergent, or transform).

*  Explain the patterns in the data we collected in class on geologic features at the fourteen locations listed above. 
Download the legal-sized handout (MSWord format) we used in class by clicking here.

*  Describe, sketch a diagram of, and explain the geologic features you would expect to find at each type of plate boundary (for help, consult Chapter 8 of your textbook).  For convergent boundaries, consider all three possible combinations of plate types!  Give a real-world example for each situation.

*  List the three major groups of rocks and briefly explain how each type forms.

*  List some characteristics of rocks that might help you determine whether a rock is igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic.

*  Given a hand sample of a rock, describe its characteristics that lead you to a determination of whether it is igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic.

*  For each of the three major groups of rocks, give a few plate tectonic settings in which one might find that type of rock forming.

*  Complete the sentence, "Most rocks are made of _________."

*  Given several samples of different minerals, make observations about them and sort them into groups based on their properties.

*  Explain what a mineral is, listing the characteristics that all minerals share.   Note: we did not specifically discuss this in class, but I wrote the definition on the board at the end of class.  You are responsible for being able to explain this; check your textbook for more information!

*  Use simple laboratory tools (copper penny, hand lens, scratch plate, streak plate, dissecting needle) to investigate the properties of minerals.

*  Describe what is meant by the following terms used to describe mineral properties

           q hardness             q luster         q streak        q specific gravity (similar to density)
                q cleavage           q color           q odor         
     q
solubility (We did not investigate solubility specifically in class, but you should have a general understanding of what it is; consult your textbook for more information.) 
                                
* Explain how to evaluate the mineral properties listed above for a given mineral sample. 

* Using a mineral identification key such as the two that were distributed in class, determine the name of a given mineral sample based on its properties.  (For fun, visit the online mineral identification key provided by the Mineralogical Society of America!)

Department of Earth Science | Northeastern Illinois University

© 2006 Laura L. Sanders.  Last updated September14, 2006.