Title: "Challenges and Perspectives of Afghan Political Settlement"
Daisaku Higashi, University of Tokyo
Abstract: I directly engaged in creating a new reconciliation framework in Afghanistan as a team leader for reconciliation and reintegration in UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) in 2010. I will share 1)the theoretical debate among the international community and the Afghan government in the preparation of making the new reconciliation framework that produced High Peace Council in October, 2010, 2) difficult and challenging process of implementing reconciliation with the Taliban since 2010, and 3) the future perspectives and challenges for Afghan political settlement, that started the momentum again in January 2012, especially when the Taliban announced opening the office in Qatar to formally advance the political process.
Title: "Gender, Globalization and Human Security"
Gale Summerfield, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Abstract: This paper explores gender and human security in the context of recurring crises associated with the processes of globalization. Human security includes basic needs such as food, housing and healthcare but also has dimensions of sustainability and agency. Gender equity is central to the realization of these aspects of security but is often not addressed explicitly. The paper discusses how certain types of risks have fallen more heavily on women than men in recent crises and the need for interventions to support capabilities during such crises. Gender and human security issues in the food price crisis of 2007-08, the related acceleration in large-scale land leasing in developing countries, and aspects associated with transnational migration are addressed.
Title: "Water Scarcity and Food Security: Lessons From the International Food Crop Trade of Japan and the United States."
Jenny Kehl, Rutgers University-Camden
Abstract: Global food security is increasingly important as the world's population continues to grow and urbanize, and water scarcity becomes more pronounced. Agriculture is the largest water-user. It requires more water than industry and residential use combined. Sixty-five percent of all human water consumption is for food production. As such, water entitlements are pursued by powerful agricultural and economic interests that are vying to secure the water rights necessary to produce sufficient crops. The purpose of this chapter is to examine water entitlements and water-use efficiency as defining factors of global food security. It focuses on the new concept of virtual water and exposes the inadvertent embedded, or hidden, global water trade of Japan and the U.S. in their international food crop trade. Virtual water is the amount of embedded water, or hidden water, used to grow food crops or manufacture industrial products. For example, it takes 500 liters of water to produce a cup of rice and about 32 kilograms of waters to make a computer microchip. The chapter analyzes the virtual water exports of Japan and the U.S. in international trade, and examines the agricultural policies and trade policies of both countries based on water-use efficiency in the food crop trade. The chapter concludes by discussing how virtual water exports can exacerbate water scarcity, food insecurity, and loss of national income. It highlights the successes and failures of innovative strategies to decrease the hidden water trade and increase water-use efficiency in food production.
Title: "Homelessness and Human Security in the United States and Japan"
Matthew D. Marr, Florida International University
Abstract: Like many leading cities of the global economy, urban locales in the United States and Japan have seen widening inequality and surges of dislocation and poverty as evidenced in persons living in public spaces. This has roused concerns about implications for the local economic environment, as well as about the basic human and social rights of people experiencing homelessness. How have national and local governments, and civil society actors such as NPOs addressed this issue? How have measures shifted over time? To what extent have these efforts succeeded in ameliorating homelessness? While reductions in street homelessness in both countries have continued through the ongoing global economic crisis, crackdowns on those that remain on the street, sizable populations in myriad housing programs, and wide inequality persist. I consider the extent to which interventions reflect successful government-private sector collaboration in reinforcing human security, welfare state rentrenchment, or punishment of the extremely poor.
Title: "No more Hiroshima, no more Fukushima: From "atoms for peace" to people's peace"
Makoto Maruyama, University of Tokyo
Abstract: In this paper, I attempt to make clear the reason why Japan does not abandon its "atoms for peace" policy. Then I point out the problems of the development of nuclear power plants. Finally I argue for the nuclear free society without nuclear power plants. In the first section, I focus on the responsibility of the economists who contributed to the promotion of the nuclear industry. I also point out the role of politicians who longed for nuclear armament. I further refer to the meaning of the pro-nuclear education. In the second section, I elucidate how the "peaceful" use of nuclear power has deprived Japanese people of their freedom to live in peace. The communities that accepted the nuclear power plants were forced to abandon their local means for living and became dependent on the subsidy. In the third section, I propose that the genuine nuclear free society is economically desirable and people-friendly.
Title: "Paradox of Human Security: Collapsed State and Piracy off Somalia"
Mitsugi Endo, University of Tokyo
Abstract: Somalia has been a "collapsed state" since 1991. Because of lack of any coastguards of the sovereign state, Somali waters have been the site of an international "free for all" with fishing fleets from around the world illegally plundering Somali stocks and freezing out the country's own poorly-equipped fishermen. It was against this background that many Somali anglers started to engage in piracy so that they met their daily needs, although there are a variety of reasons for Somali people to be involved in piratical activities as UN Working Group Report suggested. These reasons include poverty, lack of employment, environmental hardship, pitifully low income, reduction of pastoralist and maritime resources due to drought and illegal fishing and volatile security and political situation. In this regards, it is a sort of local tactics for Somali people to improve human security by their means that caused severe international security issues of piracy off Somalia. In this presentation, I would like to argue "paradox" of human security by referring to the case of continuation of "collapsed state" and dynamics of development of "business" of piracy.
Title: "Environmental Change and Human Security"
Richard Matthew, University of California, Irvine
Abstract: The concept of human security emerged as an element of a powerful and evocative vocabulary that sought to express the needs, aspirations, opportunities and risks of the post Cold War world. Sustainable development, climate change, failed state, internet, complexity science and peacebuilding are some of the other critical terms that together define an era of world politics, and provide a context within which human security is studied, debated, operationalized and assessed. My research takes place at the intersection of these key terms, and particularly in those fragile settings where processes of global environmental change can have extensive and acute impacts on human security. At a time when even states categorized as developed, enduring and advanced struggle to manage the complex challenges of environmental, economic and social crisis, building capacity for human security in states experiencing the twin pressures of environmental and social breakdown is a daunting task. It is a task further complicated by the diffuse sources of these stressors, many originating far beyond a state's borders. In this paper I explore this challenge and suggest some guidelines for practitioners, based on my personal experiences as part of UN peacebuilding missions in Rwanda and Sierra Leone.