Developmental Counseling Outline
Definition of development
Definition of normal
Definition of theory
Nature vs. Nurture
Research methods

Developmental Counseling
Theories
Human Development Human development is defined as the accumulation of individual experiences, a continuous process across the lifespan.

Human Development
Multidirectional
Multicontextual
Multicultural
Multidisciplinary/ interdisciplinary
Plastic
Holistic

Human development- Life-span perspective
Period- stage of life when person’s accumulated experiences exerts a marked influence on adjustment
Life events- sudden occurrences that precipitate stress in person’s life
Age period- segment of life that extends several years
Age cohort- refers to people born in the same time frame

Human Development
Normal development
Being on time in accomplishing age-appropriate tasks

Abnormal development
 Being “behind” or “off-time” in accomplishing tasks

Theory
Systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provide a coherent framework for explaining development.

Designed to help with interpretation of data, to make predictions based on data, and to formulate further questions.

Theory
Must be internally consistent
Must be empirically sound
Must be testable
Should be capable of integrating previous research findings

Theoretical perspectives
Environmentalist-
Human being is an empty organism which passively interacts with the environment

Organismic-
Human being is active in determining own development

Theoretical Perspectives
Nature
Nurture
Theoretical Perspectives
Psychodynamic
Behavioral approaches-
  Learning theory, Cognitive theory
Humanistic approaches
Sociocultural theory
Epigenetic systems theory
 

Examples
Learning
Behavioral
Social Learning
Piaget
Assimilation
Accomodation
Language
Chomsky
Vygotsky
Wharf
Piaget

Testing theory
Provides normative data
Allows for correlations and predictions

Testing theory- Scientific method
Develop research question
Develop hypotheses
Develop method for testing, research design
Implement design
Evaluate results

Testing theory- Research methods
Observation
Case study
Experiment
Survey
Correlational
Historical

Testing theory- Research methods
Cross-sectional
Longitudinal
Cross-sequential

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